بررسی عوامل منجر به تعارض در منابع‌طبیعی در بین گروداران کلیدی حوزه‌های آبخیز غرب گیلان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه منابع طبیعی، واحد خلخال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خلخال، ایران

2 استادیار گروه منابع طبیعی، واحد خلخال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خلخال، ایران

3 دکتری علوم مرتع، گروه منابع طبیعی، واحد خلخال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خلخال، ایران

چکیده

به دلیل تضاد منافع، تعامل بهره‌برداران و کارشناسان منابع‌طبیعی در ایران همواره دچار چالش بوده است.با توجه به شرایط بوم شناختی و اجتماعی غرب استان گیلان و چالش‌های موجود، این منطقه به عنوان هدف، بررسی شد. در این مطالعه مؤلفه‌های حقوقی، مدیریتی، بهره‌برداری و اجتماعی از منظر کارشناسان و بهره‌برداران بررسی و 188 پرسشنامه به روش گلوله برفی تکمیل شد. روایی متغیرهای اصلی تحقیق براساس آلفای کرونباخ بیشتر از 7/0 استخراج شد. برای مقایسه دیدگاه دو گروه از آزمون ناپارامتری یو من-ویتنی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد، علاوه بر آنکه در کل منطقه بین بهره‌برداران و کارشناسان منابع طبیعی چالش وجود دارد، از نظر دیدگاهی نیز بین عوامل مؤثر بر آن، اختلاف بین بهره‌برداران و کارشناسان دولتی معنی‌دار بود. مهم‌ترین مؤلفه‌های مؤثر در افزایش تضاد در این منطقه از دیدگاه بهره‌برداران، کمبود قوانین، حضورافراد غیر بومی در مراتع و جنگل‌ها، کمرنگ بودن حضور زنان در عرصه منابع طبیعی و از نظر کارشناسان کمبود قوانین، تبدیل کاربری اراضی، سطح آگاهی بهره‌برداران معرفی شد. زمین خواری، ذغال گیری و شخم زیر اشکوب از مهم‌ترین مساله چالش زا در غرب استان گیلان است که توسط هر دو گروه، به عنوان عامل موثر قوی در تضاد معرفی شد. از نظر مدیریتی نیز هر دو گروه، مؤثرترین روش کاهش تضاد را قرق جنگل‌ها و مراتع اعلام کرده‌اند ولی لزوم مدیریت مشارکتی از نظر هر دو گروه، اولویت نداشت. حضور مؤثرتر کارشناسان منابع‌طبیعی در عرصه، شناخت پتانسیل‌های معیشتی منطقه، تشویق و آموزش مردم به شناختن مشاغل جایگزین راهکار مناسبی در بهبود تعامل بهره‌برداران و کارشناسان است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the interaction of beneficiaries and natural resources authorities in the watersheds of West Gilan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Azizi 1
  • Mohsen Maleki 2
  • Masoome sadat Hosseininasab 3
1 MSc. in Watershed Management, Department of Natural Resources, Khalkhal Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Natural Resources, Khalkhal Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal, Iran
3 PhD. in Range management, Department of Natural Resources, Khalkhal Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal, Iran
چکیده [English]

Because ofthe conflicts of interest, the interaction of beneficiaries and natural resource experts inIran hasbeen challenged.This area was studied asthetarget, due totheechologic andsocial condition andconsideringthe existing conflicts. In this study, legal, managerial, exploitation, and social components were examined from the perspectives of both experts and beneficiaries. 188 questionnaires were completed with the Snowball Method. The validity of the main variables of questionnaire was greater than 0.7. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare differences between two groups. The results show that in addition to the natural resources conflict in the whole region, in terms of perspective, there is a significant difference between the factors affecting the conflict between the local community and government experts. The most important components for increasing the conflict in this region from the perspective ofstakeholders are the lack oflaws, the presence of non-natives inrangelands and forests, the low presence of women in this natural resources field and according to the experts, lack of land-use conversion, and level of awareness of stakeholders. Land grabbing, Coaling and understory tillage are the most challenging issues in the west of Gilan province.From the managerial point of view, both groups have declared that the most effective way to reduce the conflict is the confinement of forests and pastures, but the participatory management issues was not accepted according to the two groups’ viewpoints. Effective presence of experts in the field, recognizing the livelihood potentials of the region, and encouraging and educating people to know alternative jobs are suitable ways to reduce conflict.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • conflict of interest
  • interaction
  • users
  • natural resources problem
  • stakeholders
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