Application of GIS for calculation of runoff (Case study: Kechik Watershed, Golestan province)



In this paper the utilization of GIS for the parameterization of rainfall- runoff process, physically based hydrological model components is described. The hytrogeneity of soil and vegetation in a catchment can be expressed with distribution functions of infiltration and soil storage capacities which derived efficiently by an overlay of a soil map with land use characteristics. These distribution functions are used to consider the non-linear distribution of actual saturation within a catchment with regard to their impacts on generation of excess rainfall and deep percolation during a storm event. The newly developed infiltration model components and its parametrization by GIS was successfully applied to Kechik catchment. To obtain the nesessory information a simple digital soil map of the catchment was constructed by discretizing the watershed into 1×1 km2 grid cells, and combined with the land use classification to estimate for each cell in a soil texture class the areal distribution function of infiltration model parameters consist of surface soil moisture content, maximum and minimum infiltration capacity rate (Sm, fo, fc), coefficients of model (K1, K2, K3 & K4) and excess rainfall. The results of the model application are shown that the rainfall-effective runoff relationships during storm events in catchment, by application of GIS technology, a new generation of hydrological model for micro and macro scale can be developed under consideration of catchment characteristics and their spatial heterogeneity.