Assessment of runoff and sediment generation in Neogene's units under rainfall simulator (Case study: Taleghan Basin

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Abstract

In Iran, fine grained formations (Neogene's units) are very susceptible to erosion. Also, they are the units producing runoff and causing soil loss in watersheds. The objectives of this study is to assess the effect of physical - chemical and mechanical properties of these formations on sediment and runoff rates at different rainfall intensities, based on using field simulator in Taleghan Basin. For this purpose, Neogene's units were separated into five sub-units including Halite siltstone (NgSiH), Siltstone (NgSi), Mudstone (gy1C), Gypsum mudstone (gy1CG) and Halite clay stone (gy2CH), based on physical and chemical properties. Then, runoff and sediment rates were determined in each sub-units at two different intensities (30 and 60 mm/h) using rainfall simulator. Analysis of variance and Duncan's tests showed that NgSiH sub-unit has produced the highest amount of runoff and sediment rates and then the runoff and sediment rates of other subunits in decreasing order are as follows: NgSi, gy2CH, gy1CG and gy1C are 5% significant level. The trend of induced runoff and sediment rates at different times showed that in NgSiH and NgSi sub-units, runoff amounts were fixed rapidly at second ten minutes. Also, on the other sub-units, runoff amounts were fixed at third ten minutes but sediment yield was increased rapidly at third ten minutes.

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