تأثیر تلقیح قارچ میکوریزا بر استقرار نهال و خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی رشد بروموس (Bromus kopetdaghensis) در شرایط عرصه‏های مرتعی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ؛ دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع دانشکدة مرتع و آبخیزداری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

2 ؛ دانشیار دانشکدة منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود، ایران

چکیده

در اصلاح مراتعْ استقرار گیاهان، به‌ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه‏خشک، از اهمیت بسیاری برخوردار است. در سال‏های اخیر، از کودهای بیولوژیکی، مانند قارچ‏های همزیست، به منزلة رهیافتی مفید برای افزایش حاصلخیزی اراضی و استقرار گیاهان استفاده می‌شود. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی امکان افزایش درصد استقرار و سرعت رشد نشا‏های گیاه بروموس (Bromus kopetdaghensis) تلقیح‌شده با قارچ میکوریزا آربوسکولار در مرتع بهارکیش قوچان بود. بدین ‏منظور، بذر‏های بروموس در شرایط گلخانه (سینی‏های نشا) کشت شد. سپس، با دو گونه میکوریزا آربوسکولار Glomus mosseaeو G. intraradicesتلقیح و به گلدان‏های کاغذی منتقل شد. پس از یک ماه نهال‏های گلدانی به عرصه منتقل شد و به صورت طرح آزمایشی کرت‏های خردشده بر پایة طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار کشت شد. میانگین درصد کلونیزه‌شدن ریشة گیاه بروموس با گونة mosseae  G.حدود 7/62 درصد و با میکوریزا G. intraradices حدود 3/81 درصد بود. همزیستی قارچ میکوریزا به طور معنی‏داری باعث افزایش درصد استقرار در آغاز و پایان فصل رویش شد. تأثیر گونة G. intraradices بر استقرار گیاه بروموس بیشتر بود. علاوه بر این، همزیستی با این گونه باعث افزایش وزن خشک اندام ‏هوایی، وزن خشک کل گیاه، و وزن خشک ریشه شد، در حالی ‏که همزیستی با mosseae .Gباعث کاهش برخی از این صفات شد یا اینکه اثری نداشت. بنابراین، بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، می‌توان قارچ‏های G. intraradicesرا به عنوان نوعی کود‏ زیستی، به‌منظور افزایش تولید علوفه و استقرار اولیة گیاه بروموس در سطح مراتع نیمه‏خشک و منطقة بهارکیش قوچان توصیه کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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