Effect of mycorrhiza inoculation on seedlings establishment and morphological parameters of Bromus kopetdaghensis L. under field conditions

Document Type : Research Paper



Improved pasture establishment in plants, especially in arid and semi-arid is very important Application of biological fertilizers in pasture can be considered as a useful approach. that is one of the sources of the symbiotic fungus.. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possibility of enhancing seedling establishment and growth rate of Bromus kopetdaghensis under natural habitats by inoculation with mycorrhiza species, Seeds of alfalfa were sown under greenhouse for 20 days and inculcated with two species of Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae. After one month growth, the inoculated seedlings were transplanted into the natural as sub plots as split plot based on RCBD (Randomized complete block design) were evaluated with three replication. Inoculation percent with G.mosseae was 62/7 % and with of G. intraradices 81/3%. Symbiosis increased establishment of alfalfa at the early and late growth stages, with stronger effects G,intra than G.mosseae. Furthermore leaf and root dry matter, total dry matter and the ratio of above ground to underground plant parts was increased in association with G. intraradices, where as such effects were not associated with G.mosseae. In conclusions, it Glomus intraradices can be used as a biological fertilizer for establishment of alfalfa in semiarid rangeland of Bahar Kish rangeland, Quchan.


[1] Ahmad khan, I., Ahmad, Sh., Sarvat N.M., Moazzam, N., Athar, M. and Shabir, Sh. (2007). Growth response of Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) to hosphorus and mycorrhizal inoculation, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 72(2): 129-132.
[2] Alguacil, M.D., Caravaca, F., Diaz, G., Marin, P. and Roldán, A. (2004). Establishment of Retama sphaerocarpa L. seedlings on a degraded semi arid soil as influence by Mycorrhizal inoculation and sewage-sludge amendmen, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 167, 637-644.
[3] Alguacil, M.M., Torrecillas, E., Roldán, A., Díaz, G. and Torres, M.P. (2012). Perennial plant species from semiarid gypsum soils support higher AMF diversity in roots than the annual Bromus rubens, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 49, 132-138.
[4] Atayese, M. (2007). Feild response of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) cultivars to mycorrhizal inoculation phosphorus fertilizer in Abeokuta, South West Nigeria American-Eurasian, Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 2(1): 16-23.
[5] Azcón-Aguilar, C., Barea, J.M., Gianinazzi, S. and Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. (2009). MycorRhizas Functional Processes and Ecological Impact, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.
[6] Barea, J.M. and Honrubia, M. (2004). The plant mycorrhization directed forestal. In: Vallejo, R., Alloza, J.A. (Eds.), Advances in the studio of Mediterranean forest management, Environmental Studies Center Foundation CEAM Mediterranean, Valencia, 215-260.
[7] Barea, J.M., Pozo, M.J., Azcon, R. and Azcon, C. (2005). Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere, Journal of Experimental Botany, 56(417): 1761-1778.
[8] Barea, J.M., Ferrol, N., Azcón-Aguilar, C. and Azcón, R. (2008). Mycorrhizal symbioses, Series. In: White, P.J., Hammond, J.P. (Eds.), The Ecophysiology of Plant- Phosphorus Interactions, Plant Ecophysiology, 7, 143-163.
[9] Barea, J.M. (2011). Mycorrhizal Research in Spain: past, present and future, In: Megías, M., Rivilla, R., Mateos, P., Leon, M., Delgado, MJ, Gonzalez, E., Soto, MJ, Rodelas, B., Bedmar, E.J. (Eds.), Fundamentals and applications of agro-environmental beneficial plant-microbe interactions, SEFIN. In press.
[10] Barea, J.M., Palenzuela, J., Cornejo, Sánchez-Castro, P.I., Navarro-Fernández, C., Lopéz-García, A. Estrada, B., Azcón, R., Ferrol, N. and Azcón-Aguilar, C. (2011). Ecological and functional roles of mycorrhizas in semi-arid ecosystems of Southeast Spain, Journal of Arid Environments, 75(5): 1292-1301.
[11] Caravaca, F., Barea, J.M. and Roldán, A. (2002). Synergistic influence of an arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus and organic amendment on Pistacia lentiscus L. seedlings afforested in adegraded semi arid soil, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 34, 1139-1145.
[12] Caravaca, F., Alguacil, M.M., Figueroa, D., Barea, J.M. and Roldán, A. (2003). Reestablishment of Retama sphaerocarpa as a target species for reclamation of soil Physical and biological properties in a semi-arid Mediterranean area, Forest Ecology and Management, 182, 49-58.
[13] Caravaca, F., Alguacil, M.M., Barea, J.M. and Roldán, A. (2005). Survival of inocula and Native AM fungi species associated with shrubs in a degraded Mediterranean ecosystem, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, 227-233.
[14] Díaz, G., Carrillo, C. and Honrubia, M. (2009). Production of Pinus halepensis seedlings Inoculated with the edible fungus Lactarius deliciosus under nursery conditions, New Forests, 38, 215-227.
[15] Díaz, G., Carrillo, C. and Honrubia, M. (2010). Mycorrhization, growth and nutrition of Pinus halepensis seedlings fertilized with different doses and sources of nitrogen, Annals of Forest Science, 67, 405.
[16] Giovannetti, M. and Mosse, B. (1980). An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots, New Phytologist, 84, 489-500.
[17] Jankju, M., Delavari, A. and Ganjali, A. (2008). Interseeding Of range plants Bromus kopetdaghensis in shrub lands rangeland, Journal of Iranian range management society, 457-469.
[18] Jennifer, A.W., Tallaksen, J. and Charvat, I. (2008). The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation at a roadside prairie restoration site, Mycologia, 100(1): 6-11.
[19] Jiang, S.C., He, N.P., Wu, L. and Zhou, D.W. (2009). Vegetation restoration of secondary bare saline-alkali patches in the Songnen plain, China, Applied Vegetation Science, 2009, 01048.x.
[20] Johnson, D., Leake, J.R., Ostle, N., Ineson, P. and Read, D.J. (2002). In situ 13CO2 pulselabelling of upland grassland demonstrates a rapid pathway of carbon flux from arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelia to the soil, New Phytologist, 153, 327-334.
[21] Mehrvarz, S., Chaichi, M.R., and Alikhani, H.A. (2008). Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and phosphorus chemical fertilizer on yield and yield component of Barley (Hordeum vulgar), Journal Agriculture and Environment, 3(6), 822-828.
[22] Melissa, A., Danelle, M., Newcombe, G., Lynn, K., Carta, A. and Adnan Ismaiel, R. (2012). A mutualistic interaction between a fungivorous nematode and a fungus within the endophytic community of Bromus tectorum, Fungal Ecology, 5(5): 610-623.
[23] Miller, R.M. and Jastrow, J.D. (2000). The application of VA mycorrhizae to ecosystem restoration and reclamation, In: Allen MF, ed. Mycorrhizal functioning: an integrative plant-fungal process, New York: Chapman and Hall, 467p.
[24] Morte, A., Zamora, M., Gutiérrez, A. and Honrubia, M. (2009). Deserttruffle cultivation in Semiarid Mediterranean areas, In: Azcón-Aguilar, C., Barea, J.M., Gianinazzi, S., Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. (Eds.), Mycorrhizas Functional Processes and Ecological Impact, Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 233 p.
[25] Phillips, J.M. and Hayman, D.S. (1970). Improved procedure for clearing roots and staining parasites and vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection, Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55, 158-161.
[26] Porras-Soriano, A., Soriano-Martín, M.L., Porras-Piedra, A. and Azcón, R. (2009). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased growth, nutrient uptake and tolerance to salinity in olive trees under nursery conditions, Journal of Plant Physiology, 166, 1350-1359.
[27] Querejeta, J.I., Barea, J.M., Allen, M.F., Caravaca, F. and Roldán, A. (2003). Differential Response of13d C and water use efficiency to arbuscular mycorrhizal infectionin Two arid land woody plant species, Oecologia, 135, 510-515.
[28] Querejeta, J.I., Allen, M.F., Caravaca, F. and Roldán, A. (2006). Differential modulation of Host plant delta C-13and delta O-18 by native and nonnative arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi in a semiarid environment, New Phytologist, 169, 379-387.
[29] Querejeta, J.I., Allen, M.F., Alguacil, M.M. and Roldán, A. (2007). Plant isotopic composition provides insight into mechanisms underlying growth stimulation by AM Fungi in a semiarid environment, Functional Plant Biology, 34, 683-691.
[30] Renata, G., Bruno, T. and Danielle., K. (2010). The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and cattle manure in the establishment of Tocoyena selloana Schum, In mined dune areas, European Journal of Soil Biology, 46, 237-242.
[31] Requena, N., Pérez-Solís, E., Azcón-Aguilar, C., Jeffries, P. and Barea, J.M. (2001). Management of indigenous plant -microbe symbioses aids restoration of Desertified ecosystems, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 495-498.
[32] Sharma, D., Kapoor, R. and Bhatnagar, A.K. (2009). Differential growth response of Curculigo orchioides to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities varying in number and fungal components, European Journal of Soil Biology, 45, 328-333.
[33] Smith, M.R., Charvat, I. and Jacobson, R.L. (1998). Arbuscular mycorrhizae promote establishment of prairie species in a tallgrass prairie restoration, Canadian Journal of Botany, 76, 1947-1954.
[34] Smith, S.E., Facelli, E., Pope, S. and Smith, A.F. (2010). Plant performance in stressful environments: Interpreting new and established knowledge of the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizas, Plant and Soil, 326, 3-20.
[35] Thrall, P.H., Broadhurst, L.M., Hoque, M.S. and Bagnall, D.J. (2009). Diversity and salt tolerance of native Acacia rhizobia isolated from saline and non-saline soils, Austral Ecology, 34, 950-963.
[36] Wang, Z., Song, K., Zhang, B., Liu, D., Ren, C., Luo, L., Yang, T., Huang, N., Hu, L., Yang, H. and Liu, Z. (2009). Shrinkage and fragmentation of grasslands in the West Songnen Plain, China, Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 129, 315-324.
[37] Yanina, A., Busso, C., Montenegro, O., Ithurrart L. and Giorgetti, H. (2011). Defoliation effects on the arbuscular mycorrhizas of ten perennial grass genotypes in arid Patagonia, Argentina, 2011, Applied Soil Ecology, 49, 208-214.
[38] Younginger, B., Barnouti, J. and Moon, D.C. (2009). Interactive effects of mycorrhizal fungi salt stress, and competition on the herbivores of Baccharis halimifolia, Ecological Entomology, 34, 580-587.
[39] Zhang, Y.F., Wang, P. and Yang, Y.F. (2011). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve reestablishment of Leymus chinensis in bare saline-alkaline soil: Implication on vegetation‏ restoration of extremely degraded land, Journal of Arid Environments, 1-6.
  • Receive Date: 19 September 2013
  • Revise Date: 07 April 2015
  • Accept Date: 14 November 2013
  • First Publish Date: 21 January 2015