Document Type : Research Paper


Dept. of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University


Landslide is one of the most important geological phenomena in northern slopes of Iran (Alborz) which causes considerable damages gradually. In the last few years, due to unfavorable changes in land uses and increasing degradation of pastures, forests and farmlands as well as implementation of inappropriate development projects in areas prone to landslides, geology formation prone to landsliding, rainfall rate and steep slopes, the occurance of this destructive phenomenon has constantly increased. In this research, landslides which occurred around Sari-Kiasar road were investigated using physically based models i.e. SINMAP and SHALSTAB and the stability map of the region was determined applying these models. First, the physical and mechanical properties of soils in 13 points were measured and evaluated by 56 landslide points. The results of field studies, laboratory samples, running models and data analysis showed that these models (SINMAP and SHALSTAB) have success rate equal to 87.3 % and 69.5%, respectively for predicting the slope instability in ChaharDonge region. This means that the SINMAP model has more efficiency than SHALSTAB model for slope stability analysis.


[1] Bejamin, F., Zaitchik, B., Harold, M., van Es, H. and Patrick, J. (2003). Modeling Slope Stability in Honduras Parameter Sensitivity and Scale of Aggregation, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67(1), 268-278.
[2] Beven, K. J. and Kirkby, M. J. (1979). A physically-based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 24, 43-69.
[3] Clark, D. A. (2002). Bioengineering and root skin friction. Unpublished BSc Thesis, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham. Modulus of elasticity and tensile strength of Douglas fir roots, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21, 48–52.
[4] Dietrich, W. E., Bellugi, D. and Asua, R. (2001). Validation of the shallow landslide model, SHALSTAB, for forest management, Water science and Application, 2, 195-227.
[5] Greenwood, J.R., Vikkers, A.W., Morgan, R. P. C., Coppin, N.J. and Norris, J.E. (2001). Bioengineering the Longham Wood Cutting field trial. CIRIA PR 81, London.
[6] Guimarães, R. F., Montgomery, D. R., Greenberg, H. M., Fernandes, N. F., Gomes, R. A. T., and Carvalho  Junior, O. A. (2000). Parameterization of soil properties for a model of topographic controls on shallow landsliding: application to Rio de Janeiro. Engineering Geology, 69, 99–108.
[7] Hammond, C., Hall, D., Miller, S. and Swetik, P. (1992). Level I stability analysis (LISA) documentation for version 2.0. General technical report INT, 285.
[8] Ho, J.Y., Lee, K.T., Chang, T.C., Wang, Z.Y. and Liao, Y. H. (2012). Influence of spatial distribution of soil thickness on shallow landslide prediction, Engineering Geology, 124, 38–46.
[9] Husseinzade, M. M., Servati, M. R, Mansouri, A., Mirbagheri, B. and Khezri, S. (2010). Risk zonation of mass movements using logistic regression (case study: the range of Sanandaj - Dehgalan), Journal of Geology, 11, 27-37.
[10] Memarian, H. and safdari, A. (2010). Slope stability analysis in the natural environment and familiarity with the model arc GIS sin map. Sokhan gostar Publishing Co.
[11] Meisina, C., Scarabelli, S. (2007). A comparative analysis of terrain stability models for predicting shallow landslides in colluvial soils, Geomorphology, 23, 803–887.
[12] Montgomery, D. R. and Dietrich, W. E. (1994). A Physically Based Model for the Topographic Control on Shallow Landsliding, Water Resources Research, 30(4), 1153-1171.
[13] Montgomery, D. R., Sullivan, K. and Greenberg, H. R. (1998). Regional test of a model for shallow land sliding, Hydrological Processes, 12, 943–955.
[14] Naqa, A. and Abdelghafoor, M. (2006). Application of SINMAP terrain stability model along Amman-Jerash-Irbid highway, North Jordan, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Bunde B.‏
[15] Norris, J. E. (2007). Root reinforcement by hawthorn and oak roots on a highway cut-slope in Southern England, In Eco-and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability, 61-71.
[16] O’loughlin, C. L. and Ziemer, R. R. (1982). The importance of root strength and deterioration rates upon edaphic stability in steepland forests. Proceedings of an I.U.F.R.O.
[17] O'Loughlin, E. M. (1986). Prediction of surface saturation zones in natural catchments by topographic analysis. Water Resources Research, 22, 794–804.
[18] Pack, R. T., Tarboton, D. G. and Goodwin, C. N. (1998). Terrain stability mapping with SINMAP, technical description and users guide for version 1.00, 4114–0, Terratech Consulting Ltd, Salmon Arm. British Columbia.‏
[19] Quinn, P., Beven, K., Chevallier, P. and Planchon, O. (1991). The Prediction of Hillslope Flow Paths for Distributed Hydrological Modeling Using Digital Terrain Models, Hydrological Processes, 5, 59-80
[20] Talebi, A. and Izadust, M. (2011). Landslide hazard zonation model to evaluate the performance of SINMAP (Case Study: Ilam dam watershed), Watershed Engineering Iranian Journal of Science, 15, 68-63.
[21] Zizioli, D., Meisina, C., Valentino, R. and Montrasio, L. (2013). Comparison between different approaches to modeling shallow landslide susceptibility: a case history in Oltrepo Pavese, Northern Italy. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci, 13, 559-573.‏