Spatial and Temporal Variations of Nitrate Concentration in Groundwater (Case Study: Watershed Silveh)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 gorgan university

2 Tehran university

3 university of Tehran

4 ardakan university

Abstract

At present, Groundwater contamination by nitrate, serves as one of the most important environmental issues. In respect to various land uses of Silveh basin, its ground water quality parameters might vary spatially and temporally. For this, ground water samples taken from 145 points were evaluated. After determining nitrate spatial variations by varyogram, different methods involved distance inverse method and geo-statistics methods of radial estimator approaches, local estimator, ordinary kriging, simple kriging and global kriging were evaluated using GIS software and nitrate spatial distribution map were prepared in two time intervals (pre and post-harvest). Criteria based on the Root Mean Squared Error(RMSE), ordinary kriging method has the lowest error, and the accuracy considerably. Spatial distribution of nitrate in area groundwater indicated that there was high concentration of nitrate in land uses of agriculture and arid area. Of course, presence of shale-stone causes nitrate releases, intensifying issues. Comparison of nitrate samples concentration with national and international standards suggested that 1.38%(2 Point) of all samples have been nitrate-contaminated before harvesting, while 11.03%(16 Point) of them have been contaminated after harvesting.

Keywords


[1]      Ahmadi, S., H. and Sedghamiz, A. (2008). Application and evaluation of kriging and cokriging methods on groundwater depth mapping. Environment Monit Assessment, 138, 357–368.
[2]      Anayah Fathi M. and Almasri, M. N. (2009). Trends and occurrences of nitrate in the groundwater of the West Bank Palestine. Elsivier.
[3]      Babiker, I.S., Mohamed, M.A.A., Terao, H., Kato, K. and Ohta, K. (2004). Assessment of groundwater contamination by nitrate leaching from intensive vegetable cultivation using geographical information system. Environ International, 29, 1009–1017.
[4]      Bleifuss, P.S., Hanson, G.N. and Schoonen, M. (1998). Tracing sources of nitrate in the Long Island aquifer system. Department of Geosciences State University of New York at Stony Brook. 130 pp.
[5]      Bucene, L.C. and Zimback, C.R.L. (2003). Comparison of methods of interpolation and spatial analysis of pH data in Botucatu SP. IRRIGA, 8, 21-28.
[6]      Cinnirella, S., Buttafuoco, G. and Pirrone, N. (2005). Stochastic analysis to assessment the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentrations in the Po catchment. Environment Pollution, 133, 569-580.
[7]      Criss, R.E. and Davisson, M.L. (2004). Fertilizers, water quality and human health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(10), A536-A546.
[8]      Daniels, B. and Mesner, N. (2005). Safe drinking water in Utah, nitrate. http://thomsonscientific.com.
[9]      Dick, J.B. and Heuvelink, B.M. (2007). Optimization of sample patterns for universal kriging of environmental variables. Geoderma, 138, 86-95.
[10]   Farshad, A.A. and Imandel, K. (2002). An assessment of groundwater nitrate and nitrite levels in the industrial sites in the west of Tehran. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public health. 1 (2), 33-44.
[11]   Fazeli, M., Kalantari, N., Rahimi, M. and KHubyari, H.A. (2011). Investigation of Temporal and spatial distribution of nitrate pollution of groundwater resources Zydun Plain. Journal of Water Resources Engineering, fourth Year. 45-51.
[12]   Flipo N., Jeanne´e, N., Poulin, M., Even, S. and Ledoux, E. (2007). Assessment of nitrate pollution in the Grand Morin aquifers (France). Combined use of geostatistics and physically based modeling. Environmental Pollution, 146, 241-256.
[13]   Gheysari, M.M., Houdaji, M. and Abdollahi, A. (2007). Assessment of nitrate pollution of groundwater in south-east of Isfahan region. Journal of Environmental Studies. 3(42), 43-50.
[14]   Goovaerts, P. (1997). Geostatistics for Natural Resources Evaluation, Oxford University Press. 181 p.
[15]   Hamilton, P.A. and Helsel, D.R. (1995). Effects of agriculture on ground-water quality in five regions of the United States. Ground Water, 33, 217–226.
[16]   Hasani Pak, h. (1997). Geostatistical, University of Tehran press. 314 p.             
[17]   Hu, K., Huang, Y., Li, H., Li, B., Chen, D. and Edlin White, R. (2005). Spatial variability of shallow groundwater level electrical conductivity and nitrate concentration and risk assessment of nitrate contamination in North China Plain. Environment International, 31, 896 – 903.
[18]   ISIRI 2441. (2005). Natural mineral water-Specifications Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran. First revision. www.isiri.org.
[19]   ISIRI 6694. (2003). Water-Packaged (bottled) drinking waters-Specifications Institute of Standard and Industrial Research of Iran. First revision. www.isiri.org.
[20]   Jager, N. (1990). Hydrology and Groundwater simulation Lewis Publisher. 342 p.
[21]   Jahed Khaniki, G.R., Dehghani, M.H., Mahvi, A.H., Rafati, L. and tavanfar, F. (2008). Concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in groundwater resources of Hamadan Province. Iran Research Journal of Chimistryand Environment, 12(4), 22-32.
[22]   Jalali, M. (2005). Nitrates leaching from agricultural land in Hamadan western Iran Agric. Ecosystem Environment, 110, 210–218.
[23]   Jalali, M. and Kollahchi, Z. (2005). Nitrate contents in ground water of Bahar district of Hamadan. Water and Soil Sciences, 19 (2), 194-202.
[24]   Krapac, I.G., Dey, W.s, Roy, W.R., Smyth, C.A., Storment, E., Sargent, S.L. and Steele, J.D. (2002). Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality. Environmental Pollution, 120(2), 475-492.
[25]   Lalezari, R., Tabatabayi, S.H. and Yarali, N. (2009). Investigation of Monthly changes of nitrate in groundwater of Shahrekord’s  plain &  Zonation that using GIS. Iranian Research Journal Water. third Year, No 4, 9-17.
[26]   Latif, M., Mosavi, S., Afyuni, F. and Velayati, M.S. (2005). Investigation & Terracing of nitrate pollution in groundwaters of mashhad plain. Journal of Agriculture Science & Natural Resources. No 2, twelfth Year, 21-32.
[27]   Lorite-Herrera, M. and Jim nez-Espinosa, R. (2008). Impact of agricultural activity and geologic controls on groundwater quality of the alluvial aquifer of the Guadalquivir River (province of Jae´ n, Spain) a case study. Environment Geology, 54, 1391–1402.
[28]   Lundberg, J.O. (2004). Opinion Nitrate bacteria and human health. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2(7), 593-602.
[29]   Mahvi, A.H., Nouri, J., Babaei, A.A. and Nabizadeh, R. (2005). Agricultural activities impact on groundwater nitrate pollution. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2 (1), 41-47.
[30]   Maleki, R. and Nikeghbal, M. (2009). Monitoring and classifying of ground water pollution in GIS using Geostatistical analyst Case study Fomanat Basin. The first international conference of water crisis University of Zabol.
[31]   McLay, C.D.A., Dragten, R., Sparling, G. and Selvarajah, N. (2001). Predicting groundwater nitrate concentrations in a region of mixed agricultural land use a comparison of three approaches.  Environmental  Pollution, 115, 191–204.
[32]   Miranzadeh, M.B., Mostafaei, Gh. and Jalali Kashani, A. (2006). Investigation of Nitrate levels in water wells and water distribution network of Kashan City in 2005-2006. Scientific and Research Journal of Faiz, 10(2), 39-45.
[33]   Mohammadi,  J. (1998). Spatiality of soil salinity in Ramhormoz (Khuzestan) by Geostatistic Kriging. journal of Science Technology of Agriculture and natural Resources, 2(4), 49-63.
[34]   Nas, B. (2009). Geostatistical Approach to Assessment of Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Quality. Polish Journal of Environment Study, 18( 6), 1073-1082.
[35]   Norbakhsk, R., Ansari, F. and Daneshmand Irani, K. (2008). Determination of nitrate pollution in both natural mineral waters and bottled/packaging waters in iran, research journal of biological sciences, 9(3), 999-1003.
[36]   Shabani, M. (2011). Assessment of Geostatistical  Methods for zonation & product of groundwater Quality Maps case of study area Neiriz plain Fars province. Lar Journal of Physical Geography. fourth Year, 13, 83-96.
[37]   Singh, B., Singh, Y. and Sekhon, G.S. (1995). Fertilizer-N use efficiency and nitrate pollution of groundwater in developing countries. Journal of contaminant hydrology, 20, 167–184.
[38]   Siska, p.p. and Kuai Hung, I. (2001). Assessment of Kriging Accuracy in the GIS Environment. The 21st Annual ESRI International User Conference San Diego.
[39]   Soleimani, M., Ansarie, A., Haj Abassie, M.A. and Abedie, J. (2008). Investigation of nitrate and ammonium removal from groundwater by mineral filters. Journal of water and wastewater, 37, 18-26.
[40]   Sour, A., Tavili A., Alizadeh E., Barbari M., Simonini S. and Asadi, O. (2012). A GIS model for the assessment of water resources suitability for livestock grazing. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 10 (2), 997-1004.
[41]   USEPA, (1990). estimated national occurrence and exposure to nitrate in public drinking water supplies, Prepared by Wade Miller Associates, Inc. under EPA contract, 68-03-3514.
[42]   Voss, M., Deutsch Voss, B., Elmgren, R.,  Humborg, C., Kuuppo, P., Pastuszak, M., Rolff, C. and Schulte, U. (2006). Source identification of nitrate by means of isotopic tracers in the Baltic Sea catchments. Bio geosciences, 3, 663–676.
[43]   WHO, (2006). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality [Electronic Resource]: Incorporating First Addendum, Vol. 1, Recommendations, 3rd edition. World Health Organization. Geneva Switzerland 515 p. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506.pdf.
 
Volume 71, Issue 2
September 2018
Pages 307-319
  • Receive Date: 29 May 2013
  • Revise Date: 25 August 2018
  • Accept Date: 26 July 2015
  • First Publish Date: 23 August 2018