Document Type : Research Paper


1 Arid and Mountainous Regions Reclamation, Natural Resources, Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 University of Tehran

3 EDF-DTG, Grenoble, France

4 Hydrology and Hydraulic, IRSTEA, Lyon, France


There are many methods for estimating the maximum flood discharge including frequency analysis methods and risk study of hydraulic structures based on flood frequency analysis is often sensitive to the observations and selected statistical distribution that cause errors in design. Since heavy rainfalls are the main cause of floods and the rainfall records are longer than flow records, hence long-term records of rainfall at rain gauge stations of Bakhtiary basin in a 66-year period and the 58-year records of daily maximum discharge were used in this study. In this research, peak and maximum daily flows were estimated by using hydro-climatic methods of Agregee and Gradex. Then, the results obtained from the simulation based on hydro-climatic approach for the different return periods were compared with those of classical statistical techniques of Gumbel and Generalized Extreme Values (GEV). The results showed that using additional information like rainfall data plus hydrometric data in hydro-climatic methods gives better estimates rather than frequency analysis methods. Because each three evaluation criteria of Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficient, Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE) coefficient confirm performance of hydro-climatic methods in comparison with Gumbel and Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) distributions. Finally, a peak to volume ratio extracted from the 26 major flood events detected at Tang-e panj hydrometric station within the hourly discharge records was used to transform the cumulative distribution function of daily discharge into peak discharge.