Construction of cement-slag mulch using mixture experiments design for fixation of sand dunes

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty Member of Department of Human Environment, College of Environment, Karaj, Iran;

2 Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Student of Department of Human Environment, College of Environment


Mulching on the ground surface is one of the common approaches for fixing the sandy dunes and controlling dust. Despite the frequent use of oil mulch, due to its heavy costs and environmental problems, researches are focused on producing new environmentally friendly mulches. In this research, different treatments of cement, lime, wind sands and steel-slag, as cement-slag mulch, have been used to fix the sand dunes samples prepared from Robat-Karim region. Steel-slag is added to the mulch composition because of the benefits of waste reduction from environment and replacement of a part of the cement in the mulch composition because of Steel-slag pozzolanic property. To reduce the number of tests and find the optimal composition of the mulch, statistical mixture design approach was used. Furthermore, the effect of different percentages of the ingredients on shear, compression and impact strength and moisture content of cement-slag treatments were investigated. Results show that the addition of steel-slag increases the compressive and shear strength as well as the ability to maintain soil moisture in the proposed mulch. Finally, developing the mathematical model of the experiments, six different objective functions were considered for optimizing the composition of the proposed cement-slage mulch. As a result combination of 68.731% sand, 27% cement, 2.979% steel-slag and 1.3% lime were the best mulch considering all the objective functions. To validate the results of the optimization, six optimal compositions were re-constructed and the tested again. Obtained results showed an acceptable consistency between the predicted and tested values.


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Volume 71, Issue 3
December 2018
Pages 715-735
  • Receive Date: 08 July 2018
  • Revise Date: 16 November 2018
  • Accept Date: 15 September 2018
  • First Publish Date: 22 November 2018