Document Type : Research Paper
PhD. Student, Range science, Department of Reclamation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
University of Tehran
Professor, Department of Reclamation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
Department of Desert Management, International Desert Research Center , University of Tehran, Iran
The establishment of vegetation is the best way to manage degraded and at risk of degradation lands. Considering that the planting in arid lands is very costly because of ecological restrictions, so experts are looking for methods that increase the percentage of the seedlings establishment and reduce the cost of planting, in this regard the correct use of amendments is very important. The study area is located in Nazarabad City in southwest of Alborz province. In this study, the amendments including mineral biochar, arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and acrylic resin polymer each in four levels were used at the base of Nitraria schoberi seedlings. The soil characteristics of the area was determined at the start of planting. After one year with counting the number of live seedlings, the percentage of establishment for each treatment was calculated. Economical estimates were calculated based on cost-benefit and calculated separately for each treatment. The results showed that there was a significant difference at the 5% level between the amendments and the control. Mycorrhizae had the highest (70%) and the control and biochar 4 treatments had the least (40%) percent of establishment. Economically, mycorrhizal 2, polymer 2 and biochar 1 treatments were the most optimal treatments for each amendment, respectively. The used amendments had different effects on the establishment of seedlings, so that the percentage of establishment increased with increasing level of mycorrhiza use, but with increasing level of polymer and biochar use, negative effects were observed and the percentage of seedling establishment decreased.
- Abdel-Salam, E., Alatar, A. and El-Sheikh, M. A. (2018). Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviates harmful effects of drought stress on damask Rose. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 25(8), 1772-1780.
- Bagheri, V., Shamshiri, M. H., Alaei H. and Salehi, H. (2019). Effect of Three Species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Nutrients Uptake in Zinnia Plant under Drought Stress Conditions. Plant Productions (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 41(4), 83-96.
- Bencherif, K., Boutekrabt, A., Fontaine, J., Laruelle, F., Dalpe, Y. and Sahraoui, A.L. (2015). Impact of soil salinity on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biodiversity and microflora biomass associated with Tamarix articulate Vahll rhizosphere in arid and semi-arid Algerian areas. Science of the Total Environment, 533, 488-494.
- Birhane, E., Sterck, F. J., Fetene, M., Bongers, F. and Kuyper, T. W. (2012). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and growth of frankincense seedlings under pulsed water availability conditions. Oecologia, 169(4), 895-904.
- Cao, Y., Wang, B., Guo, H., Xiao, H. and Wei, T. (2017). The effect of super absorbent polymers on soil and water conservation on the terraces of the loess plateau. Ecological Engineering, 102, 270–279.
- Daftare fani mohandesi. (2005). Report of Country Vegetation Map Preparation Project. Forests, Range and Watershed Management Organization, 129 pages.
- Eskandari, Z., Ghayour, F. and Sherbaf, A. H. (2012). Investigating two kind of polymer absorbent in increasing the water use efficiency in rehabilitation projects. Watershed Engineering and Management, 4(3), 152-160.
- Evonik Industries. (2019). https://www.break-thru.com/product/break-thru/en/products/stockosorb/
- Guan, H.L., Yong, D.L., Fan, M.X., Yu, X.L., Wang, Z., Liu, J.J. and Li, J.B. (2018). Sodium humate modified superabsorbent resin with higher salt-tolerating and moisture-resisting capacities. Applied Polymer Science, 135(48), 46892.
- Gunes, A., Inal, A., Taskin, M.B., Sahin, O., Kaya, E.C. and Atakol, A. (2014). Effect of phosphorus enriched biochar and poultry manure on growth and mineral composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in alkaline soil. Soil Use Management, 30, 182-188.
- Huettermann, A., Zommorodi, M. and Reise, K. (1999). Addition of hydrogels to soil for prolonging the survival of Pinus halepensis seedlings subjected to drought. Soil and Tillage Research, 50(3), 295-304.
- Jafari, M., Tavili, a., Esmaeilpour, Y., Azarnivand, H., Zare-chahooki, M. and Asghari, H. (2015). Investigating the Effect of Utilizing Water-Absorbing Polymer on Seedlings of Desert Areas in Terms of Establishment and Cost (Case Study: Semnan Province), Range and Watershed Management Research, 68(4), 725-738.
- James, B., Rodel, D., Lorettu, U., Reynaldo, E. and Tariq, H. (2008). Effect of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi inoculation on coppicing ability and drought resistance of Senna Spectabilis.Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40(5), 2217-2224.
- Kamali, P., Heshmati, G., Sepehri, A. and Ahmadi, S. (2017). Effects of acrylic resin containing clay nanoparticles and dry farmed wheat mulch on the establishment of Nitraria schoberi L. within curved micro catchment ponds (Case Study: international project of carbon sequestration, North Khorasan Province). Rangeland, 11(2), 246-257.
- Kim, H.S., Kim, K.R., Yang, J.E., Ok, Y.S., Owens, G., Nehls, T., Wessolek, G. and Kim, K.H. (2016). Effect of biochar on reclaimed tidal land soil properties and maize (Zea mays L.) response. Chemosphere, 142, 153-159.
- Kumar, V., Kumar, M., Sharma, S. and Prasad, R. (2017). Probiotics and plant health (Chapter 14). (pp.337-352). Noida, India: Springer.
- Mohammadi Sardoueiyeh, S., Boroomand, N. and Moghbeli, E. (2018). Effect of different mycorrhizal species inoculation on concentration of nutrient elements, yield per plant and antioxidant activity in Peppermint (Mentha piperita) under salt stress. Soil Management and Sustainable Production, 8(4): 127-142.
- Pagano, M. C. and Dhar, P. P. (2014). Mycorrhizas associated with forests under climate change. In S. Lac, and Lucas-Borja (Eds.), Climate change and forest ecosystems (pp. 291-316). New York: Nova Science.
- Pourmaydany, A. and Khakdaman, H. (2004). Effects of Using Aquasorb Polymer on Irrigation of Pinus Eldarica, Olea Europea And Atriplex Canescens, Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 13(1), 79-92.
- Robiul-Islam, M., Shahidul-Alam, A.M., Egrinya Eneji, A., Ren, C., Song, W. and Hu, Y. (2011). Evaluation of a water-saving superabsorbent polymer for forage oat (Avena sativa L.) production in arid regions of northern China. Food, Agriculture & Environment, 9, 514-518.
- Safari, S., Nazari, F. and Vafaee, Y. (2019). Effect of drought stress and rice husk biochar on growth and development of perennial ryegrass cv. ‘Barball’ (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Barball’). 11th Confference of Iran Horticultural Science, Urmia, 26-28 August.
- Seran, T. H., Srikrishnah, S., and Ahamed, M.M.Z. (2010). Effect of different levels of inorganic fertilizers and compost as basal application on the growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.). Agricultural Sciences, 5(2), 64-70.
- Shooshtarian, S., Abedi-Kupai, J. and Tehranifar, A. (2012). Evaluation of Application of superabsorbent Polymers in Green Space of Arid and semi-Arid regions with emphasis on Iran. International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion (IJFSE) 2, 24-36.
- Smith, S. and Read, D. (2008). Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 3rd Edition. Academic Press, 800 pages. Hardcover ISBN: 9780123705266.
- Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). (2008). Glossary of Soil Science Terms. 88 pages, ISBN:978-0-89118-851-3.
- Suppadit, T., Phumkokrak, N. and Poungsuk, P. (2012). The effect of using quail litter biochar on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) production. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 72, 244-251.
- Tarin, M. W. K., Fan, L., Tayyab, M., Sarfraz, R., Chen, L., He, T. and Zheng, Y. (2018). Effects of bamboo biochar amendment on the growth and physiological characteristics of Fokienia hodginsii. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16, 8055-8074.
- Xianglin, Y., Zhe, W., Jiajun, L., Hua, M., Yong, D. and Li J. (2019). Preparation, swelling behaviors and fertilizer-release properties of sodium humate modified superabsorbent resin. Materials Today Communications, 19, 124-130.
- Zhao, H. L., He, Y. H., Zhou, R. L., Su, Y. Z., Li, Y. Q., & Drake, S. (2009). Effects of desertification on soil organic C and N content in sandy farmland and grassland of Inner Mongolia. Catena, 77(3), 187-191.