It is clear that the ENSO phenomenon affects the hydrological and climatic regimes in different parts of the world, but the extent of this effect in different parts of the world has not yet been answered. Therefore, this research has been done to answer this important question. In this research, using the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), the effect of the positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Frequency of Dust Stormy Days (FDSD) in 12 synoptic stations located in Khuzestan and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces over a period of 40 years (2019-1980) has been reviewed. For this purpose, hourly dust data, codes of the World Meteorological Organization, Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and time changes of FDSD index in two neutral phases and the occurrence of El Niño were used. The results of ANFIS model estimation and observational values of FDSD index showed that at the occurrence time of El Niño in Khuzestan and Sistan and Baluchestan provinces, equal to 33 and 17 events, respectively, the observable values of the frequency of days with dust storm were less than the estimated values. The results also showed that the positive phase of ONI is more effective on dust storms in Khuzestan province than in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Therefore, during the hot phase of ENSO, more measures should be taken to control and manage dust storms and their destructive effects in areas where the source of dust storms is external.