Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Master of Science in Natural Resources


Having knowledge on the quantitative amount of watershed sediment yield is one of the most basic information to deal with soil erosion and conservation as well as design of dams. In Iran, the estimation of suspended sediment load is often based on measurement curve methods. Since sediment discharge data are random and discontinuous, in practice, their internalization and extrapolation is associated with many errors. This review is to evaluate the number of data available to estimate daily sediment load with Loadest regression models. Therefore, daily discharge data of Ghazaghli station in Gorganrood forest watershed were used. So that different percentages of available data were accidentally deleted and the amount of sediment load was estimated by 11 methods. According to the evaluation results (Taylor diagram), model number 2 has the best accuracy and in the absence of up to 50% of the daily sediment data, the correlation coefficient of more than 0/5 in the annual sediment estimation and only for the first year And in the rest of the years under study the correlation coefficient is unacceptable. Therefore, the use of sediment measurement curve methods with the data available at the level of Iranian stations, if the number of data available to construct the measurement curve is less than 185 will be associated with very little accuracy. Also, the higher the amount of available data belonging to the periods of low sediment transport (autumn and dry years), the lower the efficiency of the Loadest method will be.


  • Azami, A., and Biroudian, N., and Najafinejad, A., and Yaghmaei, F. and Arab Khedri, M. (2009). Determining the appropriate method for estimating suspended sediment load in Illam dam basin. Watershed Management Research (Pajouhesh Sazandegi), 22, 2(83), 75-82.
  • Azizi, GH., Safar rad T., Moahamadi H. and Sabokbar F H., (2016). Evaluation and Comparison of Recovered Rainfall Data for Use in Iran. Natural Geography Research; 48(1), 33-49 (in Farsi).
  • Best, J. (2019). Anthropogenic stresses on the world’s big rivers. Nature Geoscience, 12(1), 7-21.
  • Chaab, H., Jafari, A., Jalili, S. and Zahiri, J., (2018). Comparison of methods for estimating suspended sediment load upstream and downstream of Dez Reservoir Dam, 11th International Seminar on River Engineering, Ahvaz (in Farsi).
  • Cohn, T.A., (1995). Recent advances in statistical methods for the estimation of sediment and nutrient transport in rivers: Reviews in Geophysics, 33, 1117–1124.
  • Cohn, T.A., Caulder, D.L., Gilroy, E.J., Zynjuk, L.D. and Summers, R.M., (1992). The validity of a simple statistical model for estimating fluvial constituent loads, An empirical study involving nutrient loads entering Chesapeake Bay: Water Resources Research, 28(9), 2353–2363.
  • Dai, Z.J., Mei, X.F., Darby, S.E., Lou, Y.Y. and Li, W.H., (2018). Fluvial sediment transfer in the Changjiang (Yangtze) river-estuary depositional system. Journal of Hydrology, 566, 719–734.
  • Eo, S., Hong, S. H., Song, Y. K., Han, G.M. and Shim, W.J. (2019). Spatiotemporal distribution and annual load of microplastics in the Nakdong River, South Korea. Water research, 160, 228-237.
  • Giosan, L., Syvitski, J., Constantinescu, S. and Day, J., (2014). Protect the world’s deltas. Nature 516 (7529), 31–33.
  • Guo, C., Jin, Z., Guo, L., Lu, J., Ren, S. and Zhou, Y. (2020). On the cumulative dam impact in the upper Changjiang River: Streamflow and sediment load changes. Catena, 184, 104250.
  • Himanshu, S.K., Pandey, A., Yadav, B. and Gupta, A. (2019). Evaluation of best management practices for sediment and nutrient loss control using SWAT model. Soil and Tillage Research, 192, 42-58.‌
  • Kirwan, M.L. and Megonigal, J.P., (2013). Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise. Nature 504, 53–60.
  • Milliman, J.D., Farnsworth, K.L., 2011. River Discharge to the Coastal Ocean, a Global Synthesis. Cambridge University.
  • Mirzaei, M., and Arab Khedri, M., and Feyznia, S. and Ahmadi, H., (2005). Comparison of statistical methods for estimating suspended sediment in rivers. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 58 (2), 301-313.
  • Moradi Nejad, A., Davood Maghami, D. and Moradi, M., (1398). Evaluation of efficiency of methods for estimating suspended sediment load of Qarachai river. Environment and Water Engineering, 5 (4), 328-338 (in Farsi).
  • Peng, T., Tian, H., Singh, V.P., Chen, M., Liu, J., Ma , H. and Wang, J. (2020). Quantitative assessment of drivers of sediment load reduction in the Yangtze River basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 580, 124242.
  • Rahimi, M., (1397). Assessing the accuracy and efficiency of sediment estimation methods (Case study: Dorodzan Dam watershed), International Conference on Society and Environment, Tehran.
  • Runkel, R.L., Crawford, C. G. and Cohn, T.A. (2004). Load Estimator (LOADEST): A FORTRAN program for estimating constituent loads in streams and rivers (No. 4-A5).
  • Rustaei, M., Agh Ataby, M.A., Raghimi M., Nemati M. and Rahimi Chakdel A., (2015). Active Tectonics Analysis by Using Geomorphic Signatures in the Gorgan Drainage Basin in North Eastern Alborz, Geographycal Research, 29, 4(115), 43-56 (in Farsi).
  • Srivastava, A., Brooks, E.S., Dobre, M., Elliot, W. J., Wu, J.Q., Flanagan, D.C. and Link, T.E. (2020). Modeling forest management effects on water and sediment yield from nested, paired watersheds in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA using WEPP. Science of the Total Environment, 701, 134877.
  • Sun, P., Wu, Y., Yang, Z., Sivakumar, B., Qiu, L., Liu, S. and Cai, Y. (2019). Can the grain-for-green program really ensure a low sediment load on the Chinese Loess Plateau?. Engineering, 5(5), 855-864.
  • Vercruysse, K., Grabowski, R.C. and Rickson, R.J., (2017). Suspended sediment transport dynamics in rivers: multi-scale drivers of temporal variation. Earth Scince Reviews, 16, 38–52.
  • Wang, H.J., Saito, Y., Zhang, Y., Bi, N.S., Sun, X.X. and Yang, Z.S., (2011). Recent changes of sediment flux to the western Pacific Ocean from major rivers in East and Southeast Asia. Earth Science Reviews, 108, 80–100.
  • Yang, S.L., Milliman, J.D., Xu, K.H., Deng, B., Zhang, X.Y. and Luo, X.X., (2014). Downstream sedimentary and geomorphic impacts of the three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Earth Sci. Rev. 138, 469–486.