Evaluation and determination of factors affecting erosion and sedimentation of watersheds, case study: Urmia Lake basin

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Zanjan, Iran.

2 Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, AREEO, Tehran, Iran


Erosion and sedimentation phenomena are two inevitable phenomena of watersheds that are subject to complex factors. Identifying these factors and recognizing their effect on erosion and sediment will help in better planning to reduce the damage caused by erosion and sediment in a basin. In this study, to determine the factors affecting sedimentation, the Urmia Lake watershed was selected as the study basin. After identifying 30 characteristics affecting the sedimentation of sub-basins of the study area, including hydrological, physiographic, geomorphological, geological and soil characteristics, climate, land use and vegetation as independent variables, the amount of sediment produced in each sub-basin. Was identified as a dependent variable. Using factor analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and stepwise multivariate regression between selected independent variables and dependent variable using SPSS software Statistical relationship was obtained between sedimentation of sub-basins and watershed characteristics. According to the selected regression model, it is determined that the amount of sediment in the watershed of Lake Urmia to five factors of agricultural land area (rainfed, irrigated and orchards), the area of sub-basins, the total area of erosion and Quaternary structures, average discharge The annual and basin form factor depends on the fact that these five factors control 89% of the sediment production changes in the selected sub-basins, which is significant at the 5% confidence level. In general, the factors affecting erosion and sedimentation of the Urmia Lake watershed can be divided into three groups: human factors and land use change, geology and physiography.


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Volume 74, Issue 4
March 2022
Pages 771-784
  • Receive Date: 23 November 2021
  • Revise Date: 09 February 2022
  • Accept Date: 12 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 20 February 2022