Analysis of Institutional Network of Resilience to Climate Change: Case of Ghezel Ozen Basin

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Agricultural extension and education, University of Tehran


The climate change phenomenon is considered as one of the important environmental challenges in the 21st century. The most impacts of this phenomenon are focused on industries and establishments such as agriculture and fishery that is depended on natural resources. Resilience considered as a practical approach for compatibility of this phenomenon and the creation of sustainable development. Since networks, especially formal networks such as institutional networks, can play a key role in creating and promoting resilience against climate change, the present study is conducted through a network analysis approach and with the aim of fundamental analyses in the field of resilience against climate change. The statistical population of the present study consists of the small beneficiary owners in Tarom County in Zanjan province. Through network analysis, the dominant statistical method of the research considered as the sociometry and extraction of network centrality indices. According to the findings, two agencies namely Agriculture Jihad Organization, and Banks and Credit and Financial Institution play a major role in the educational information network and technical services, respectively. In the financial facilities network, banks and credit and financial institutions, and the Agricultural Jihad Organization rank first and second in providing the financial services and consulting, respectively. The findings demonstrated that many institutions that can play a constructive role in the field of resilience against climate change, such as the insurance organization, have been secluded and marginalized.


[1] Adger, W. N. (2000). Social and ecological resilience: are they related?. Progress in human geography, 24(3), 347-364.
[2] Adger, W. N. (2003). Social Capital, Collective Action, and Adaptation to Climate Change. Economic Geography, 79, 387-404.
[3] Alambeigi, A.and Malekli, M. (2019). Institutional Analysis of Drought Management in the Ghareh Chay Watershed in Saveh County: An Application of Social Network Analysis. Journal of Range and Watershed Management, 71(4), 1013-1027 .(In Persian)
[4] Bandiera, O. and Rasul, I. (2006). Social networks and technology adoption in northern Mozambique. The Economic Journal, 116(514), 869-902.
[5] Barnes, M. L., Bodin, Ö., Guerrero, A. M., McAllister, R. R., Alexander, S. M. and Robins, G. (2017). The social structural foundations of adaptation and transformation in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 22(4).
[6] Berkes, F. and Ross, H. (2013). Community resilience: toward an integrated approach. Society & Natural Resources, 26(1), 5-20.
[7] Biggs, R., Schlüter, M. and Schoon, M. L. (Eds.). (2015). Principles for building resilience: sustaining ecosystem services in social-ecological systems. Cambridge University Press.
[8] Bisaro, A., Roggero, M. and Villamayor-Tomas, S. (2018). Institutional analysis in climate change adaptation research: A systematic literature review. Ecological economics, 151, 34-43.
 [9] Bodin, Ö. And Prell, C. (Eds.). (2011). Social networks and natural resource management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance. Cambridge University Press.
[10] Bodin, Ö. And Tengö, M. (2012). Disentangling intangible social–ecological systems. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 430-439.
[11] Boyd, E. and Folke, C. (Eds.). (2011). Adapting institutions: governance, complexity and social-ecological resilience. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
[12] Brown, J., Alvarez, P., Byrd, K., Deswood, H., Elias, E. and Spiegal, S. (2017). Coping with historic drought in california Rangelands: developing a more effective institutional response. Rangelands, 39(2), 73-78.
[13] Buikstra, E., Ross, H., King, C. A., Baker, P. G., Hegney, D., McLachlan, K. and RogersClark, C. (2010). The components of resilience—Perceptions of an Australian rural community. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(8), 975-991.
[14] Butler, P. G., Wanamaker Jr, A. D., Scourse, J. D., Richardson, C. A. and Reynolds, D. J. (2013). Variability of marine climate on the North Icelandic Shelf in a 1357-year proxy archive based on growth increments in the bivalve Arctica islandica. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 373, 141-151.
[15] Cassidy, L. and Barnes, G. D. (2012). Understanding household connectivity and resilience in marginal rural communities through social network analysis in the village of Habu, Botswana. Ecology and Society, 17(4).
[16] Conley, T. and Christopher, U. (2001). Social learning through networks: The adoption of new agricultural technologies in Ghana. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83(3), 668-673.
[17] Crona, B. and Bodin, Ö. (2006). What you know is who you know? Communication patterns among resource users as a prerequisite for co-management. Ecology and society, 11(2).
[18] Crona, B. and Hubacek, K. (2010). Social network analysis in natural resource governance. Ecol Soc, 15(4).
[19] Dapilah, F., Nielsen, J. Ø. And Friis, C. (2019). The role of social networks in building adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change: a case study from northern Ghana. Climate and Development, 1-15.
[20] Davies, J. and Bennett, R. (2007). Livelihood adaptation to risk: Constraints and opportunities for pastoral development in Ethiopia's Afar region. The Journal of Development Studies, 43(3), 490-511.
[21] Davis, I. and Y. Izadkhah, (2006). Building resilient urban communities. Article from OHI, 31(1), 11-21.
[22] Esmailnejad, M. and Pudineh, M. (2017). Evaluation of adaptation to climate change in rural areas south of South Khorasan. Journal of natural environmental hazards, 6(11), 85-100. (In Persian)
[23] Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global environmental change, 16(3), 253-267.
[24] Folke, C., Hahn, T., Olsson, P. and Norberg, J. (2005). Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30, 441-473.
[25] Folke, C. (2016). Resilience (republished). Ecology and Society, 21(4).
[26] Friend, R. and Moench, M. (2013). What is the purpose of urban climate resilience? Implications for addressing poverty and vulnerability. Urban Climate, 6, 98-113.
[27] Ghorbani, M., Rahimi Balkanlou, Kh., Jafari, M. and Tavili, A. (2015). Analyzing the social capital in rangeland stakeholder's network for adaptive co-management (ACM). Journal of Rangeland, 9(1), 91-105. (In Persian)
[28] Hasani, S.Gh. (2019). An analysis on the challenges and vulnerabilities of cultural resilience in the local community: Case study of fereydunkenar local wetlands. Journal of Sociology of Social Institutions, 5(12), 269-291. (In Persian)
[29] Heidari Sareban, V. and Majnouni -Toutakhane, A. (2017). The role of livelihood diversity on the resilience of rural households living around the Lake Urmia against drought. Journal of spatial analysis environmental hazards, 3(4), 49-70. (In Persian)
[30] Hooshmandan Moghaddam Fard, Z., Shams, A., Yaghoubi, H., Saba, J. and Asakereh, H. (2020). Investigating factors affecting adaptation behaviors of farmers with climate change in Zanjan Province. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 30(3), 231-251. (In Persian)
[31] Hoseini, S.S., Nazari, M. and Araghinejad, Sh. (2013). Investigating the impacts of climate on agricultural sector with emphasis on the role of adaptation strategies in this sector. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, 44(1), 1-16. (In Persian)
[32] Isaac, M. E. (2012). Agricultural information exchange and organizational ties: The effect of network topology on managing agrodiversity. Agricultural systems109, 9-15.
[33] Islam, R. and Walkerden, G. (2014). How bonding and bridging networks contribute to disaster resilience and recovery on the Bangladeshi coast. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 10, 281-291.
[34] Janssen, M. A., Bodin, Ö., Anderies, J. M., Elmqvist, T., Ernstson, H., McAllister, R. R. and Ryan, P. (2006). Toward a network perspective of the study of resilience in social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 11(1).
[36] Kibue, G. W., Liu, X., Zheng, J., Pan, G., Li, L. and Han, X. (2016). Farmers’ perceptions of climate variability and factors influencing adaptation: Evidence from Anhui and Jiangsu, China. Environmental management, 57(5), 976-986.
[37] Layeghi, A., Ghasemi, P. and babaiy, n. (2013). A Study of Production and Employment Comparative Advantage in the Agriculture Sector of Iran Provinces. Economic Journal, 11(12), 83-110.(In Persian)
[38] Marshall, N. A., Dowd, A. M., Fleming, A., Gambley, C., Howden, M., Jakku, E. and Thorburn, P. J. (2014). Transformational capacity in Australian peanut farmers for better climate adaptation. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34(3), 583-591.
[39] Masys, A. (Ed.). (2015). Disaster management: enabling resilience. Springer international publishing.
[40] Moore, M. L.Westley, F. (2011). Surmountable chasms: networks and social innovation for resilient systems. Ecology and society, 16(1).
[41] Mubaya, C. P. and Mafongoya, P. (2017). The role of institutions in managing local level climate change adaptation in semi-arid Zimbabwe. Climate Risk Management, 16, 93-105.
[42] Newman, L. and Dale, A. (2005). Network structure, diversity, and proactive resilience building: a response to Tompkins and Adger. Ecology and society, 10(1).
[43] Noghani Dokhtbahmani, M. and sadeginejad, M. (2014). Network Analysis Method (Theoretical Approaches and Techniques). Second National Conference of Sociology and Social Sciences, December 25, University of Tehran. (In Persian)
[44] Obayelu, O. A., Adepoju, A. O. and Idowu, T. (2014). Factors influencing farmers’ choices of adaptation to climate change in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID), 108(1), 3-16.
[45] Ofoegbu, C., Chirwa, P. W., Francis, J. and Babalola, F. D. (2016). Assessing forest-based rural communities' adaptive capacity and coping strategies for climate variability and change: The case of Vhembe district in south Africa. Environmental Development, 18, 36-51.
[46] Paolisso, M., Prell, C., Johnson, K. J., Needelman, B., Khan, I. M. and Hubacek, K. (2019). Enhancing socio-ecological resilience in coastal regions through collaborative science, knowledge exchange and social networks: a case study of the Deal Island Peninsula, USA. Socio-Ecological Practice Research, 1(2), 109-123.
[47] Pinquart, M. (2009). Moderating effects of dispositional resilience on associations between hassles and psychological distress. Journal of applied Developmental psychology, 30(1), 53-60.‏‏
[48] Ramirez-Sanchez, S. and Pinkerton, E. (2009). The impact of resource scarcity on bonding and bridging social capital: the case of fishers’ information-sharing networks in Loreto, BCS, Mexico. Ecology and Society, 14(1).
[49] Rezaei, A., Hosseini, S.M. and Asadi, A. (2015). Analysis of Information Exchange Network among Organizations for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources (Study case: Alborz Watershed in Mazandaran province). Journal of Range and Watershed Management. 1(68), 65-79. (In Persian)
[50] Rockenbauch, T. and Sakdapolrak, P. (2017). Social networks and the resilience of rural communities in the Global South: a critical review and conceptual reflections. Ecology and Society, 22(1).
[51] Sadeghloo, T. and Sojasi Qeidari, H. (2014). Ranking of Effective Factors for Farmer Resilience increasing Against of Natural Hazards (With emphasis on drought) Study area: rural farmer in Ijrud province. Journal of Geography and Environmental Hazards, 3(10), 129-154. (In Persian)
[52] Scheffran, J., Marmer, E. and Sow, P. (2012). Migration as a contribution to resilience and innovation in climate adaptation: Social networks and co-development in Northwest Africa. Applied geography, 33, 119-127.
[53] Sharafi, L. and Zarafshani, K. (2011). Economic and Social Vulnerability Assessment among Farmers towards Drought (Case Study: Wheat Farmers Kermanshah, Sahne, and Ravansar Townships). Journal of Rural Research, 1(4), 129-154. (In Persian)
[54] Smith, J. W., Anderson, D. H. and Moore, R. L. (2012). Social capital, place meanings, and perceived resilience to climate change. Rural Sociology, 77(3), 380-407.
[55] Sixth Development Plan of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Zanjan Province. (2016). Zanjan agricultural jihad organization, (Unpublished). (In Persian)
- Soil and Water Research Institute. (2010). Zanjan agricultural jihad organization, (Unpublished). (In Persian)
 [56] Tompkins, E., Adger, W. N. and Brown, K. (2002). Institutional networks for inclusive coastal management in Trinidad and Tobago. Environment and Planning A, 34(6), 1095-1111.
[57] Weiss, K., Hamann, M., Kinney, M. and Marsh, H. (2012). Knowledge exchange and policy influence in a marine resource governance network. Global Environmental Change, 22(1), 178-188.
[58] Wilkin, J., Biggs, E. and Tatem, A. J. (2019). Measurement of social networks for innovation within community disaster resilience. Sustainability, 11(7), 1943-1956.
[59] Wilson, S., Pearson, L. J., Kashima, Y., Lusher, D. and Pearson, C. (2013). Separating adaptive maintenance (resilience) and transformative capacity of social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 18(1).
[60] Zanjan Province Agricultural Statistics. (2015). Zanjan agricultural jihad organization, (Unpublished). (In Persian)
Volume 73, Issue 4
March 2021
Pages 725-740
  • Receive Date: 16 February 2020
  • Revise Date: 22 February 2021
  • Accept Date: 27 February 2021
  • First Publish Date: 27 February 2021