Ph.D. Graduate, Combating Desertification, Gorgan University of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Golestan,
Assistant Professor of Rangeland Management Department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor , Iran
Document Type : Research Paper
Sustainable livelihood approach is one of the new approaches in the field of sustainable rural development, which has been considered for poverty reduction and improving rural living standards, and their factors have a vital importance and role. Therefore, the aim of this study investigate the effect of ecotourism on sustainable rural livelihood in Palangan Village of Kurdistan Province. The statistical population in this study is all persons over 20 year’s old living in the studied village that are 623 peoples. Sampling was done randomly that using the Cochran formula, a total of 238 individuals were selected. A data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire that used after confirming the validity by experts' opinion and reliability by Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.83). Data analysis was performed using SPSS16.0 software. The results of one-sample t-test showed that natural, social and human resources were not in a good condition under the influence of ecotourism in Palangan village. Financial and physical capitals have had a better effects and this effect was only significant in physical livelihood capital. The findings of this study showed that there is a need to improve the tourism situation in the study area in order to achieve sustainable livelihoods and in this regard, principled management, local community participation and the use of ecotourism potentials in Palangan village are necessary.
- Abdollahzadeh, Gh.h., Salehi, Kh., Sharifzadeh, M.Sh., & Khajeh Shahkohi, A. (2015). Investigating the impact of tourism on sustainable livelihoods in Golestan Province, Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 4 (15): 148-169. In Persian.
- Blake, A., Arbache, J.S., Sinclair, M., & Thea Teles, V. (2008). Tourism and Poverty Relief. Annals of Tourism Research 35(1): 107-126.
- Carney, D. (1998). Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: What Contribution Can We Make? London: DFID. 213 pages.
- Croes, R. & Vanegas Sr, Ma. (2008). Co integration and Causality between Tourism and Poverty Reduction. Journal of Travel Research, 47(1): 94-103.
- DelMar Alonso-Almeida, M. (2013). Environmental management in tourism: students’ perceptions and managerial practice in restaurants from a gender perspective, Journal of Cleaner Production, 60, 201-207.
- Esazehi, A. (1979). Survey of sustainable livelihoods index of rural households in Saravan County, MA Thesis in Agricultural Extension, Yasuj University. In Persian.
- Fallahi, H. (2006). Feasibility study of ecotourism development - Ashtarakoh Basin with emphasis on gohar lake, MSc Thesis, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University. In Persian.
- Ghadami, M. & Aligholi Zadeh Firouzjaie, N. (2012). Evaluation of destination tourism development in the sustainability framework of the Study Sample (Tamashkal District / Tonekabon County), Geographical Research Quarterly, 27 (1): 104-79. In Persian.
- Gilmon, P. (2008). Environmental Analyze and Zoning for an Urban Park Management Purpose Bralizian Archives of Biology and Technology, 48(4): 647-655.
- Harilal, V., & Tichaawa, T.M. (2018). Ecotourism and alternative livelihood strategies in Cameroon’s protected areas. Euro Economica, 1(37): 133-148.
- Islami, I., Ebrahimzadeh Asmin, H., & Ashtari Mehrjadi, A. (2020). Social Network Analysis of Participatory Management and Social Capital among Livestock Beneficiaries in Yazd Province. Journal of Community Development, 12(2): 483-500. In Persian.
- Luvanga, N., & Shitundu, J. (2003).The Role of Tourism in Poverty Alleviation in Tanzania. Research Report, No. 03.4
- Malek, B. (2014). Designing of tourist complex in Palangan Village (with ecotourism and sustainable architecture), Master of Architecture Thesis, Shahrood University of Technology. In Persian.
- Masoumi, M. (2009). An introduction to approaches in planning local, Urban and Regional Tourism Development, Samira Publications. In Persian.
- Mbaiwaa, J.E. & Stronzab, A. (2010). The effects of tourism development on rural livelihoods in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(5): 635-656.
- Mir Karimi, S. H., Saeedi, S. & Saeedi, S. (2016). Principles and concepts of achieving successful ecotourism, Human and Environmental Quarterly, 14 (2): 13-23. In Persian.
- Moghaddam, S. (2016). Assessing the role of ecotourism in the sustainable development of local communities of Abhar County, MA Thesis in Geography and Tourism Planning, Zanjan University. In Persian.
- Moradi, D. (2013). The role of ecotourism in the economic development of wetlands (Case Study: Varzaneh City), Master of Science in Geography and Tourism Planning, University of Science and Culture. In Persian.
- Motiei Langroodi, H., Ghadiri Masoum, M., Rezvani, M. R., Nazari, A. & Sahneh, B. (2011). The impact of migrants 'return to villages on improving residents' livelihoods (Case Study: Aq Qala City), Human Geography, 78, 67-83. In Persian.
- Mozumder, M. M. H., Uddin, M. M., Schneider, P., Islam, M. M., & Shamsuzzaman, M. (2018). Fisheries-Based Ecotourism in Bangladesh: Potentials and Challenges. Resources, 7(4), 61 pages.
- Muladan, B., & Bilharz, S. (2002). Sustainable development indicators, Translated by Haddad Tehrani, Neshat, Moharramnejad, Nasser, EPA Publications. 468 pages. In Persian.
- National Statistics Portal. (2019). Iran Statistical Center, Results of the general population and housing census of 2016. In Persian.
- Nazarian, A., Moshiri, S.R. & Aghajani, F. (2006). Feasibility study of tourism industry development in Ardabil City, Geographical Perspective Quarterly, 1(3): 103-117. In Persian.
- Nyaupane, G.P. (2011). Linkages among biodiversity, livelihood, and tourism, Annuals of Tourism Research, 38(4): 1344-1366.
- Roe, D., Ashley, C., Page, S.H. & Meyer, D. (2004). Tourism and the poor: Analyzing and interpreting tourism statistics from a poverty perspective. Partnership London.1-29.
- Samavati, A. (2016). Evaluating the effects of ecotourism on sustainable livelihood components from a perspective experts and tribes of Turkasvand, Master's Degree in Range Management, University of Malayer. In Persian.
- Sarmad, Z., Bazaragan, A. & Hajazi, A. (2014). Research Methods in Behavioral Sciences, Publication of Agah, 408p.
- Sarvi sadrabad, H., & Islami, I. (2020). Analysis of the social network and bonding social capital in participatory management of water resources (Case study: Sadrabad Village, Nodoushan catchment, Yazd Province). Journal of Range and Watershed Management. 72(3): 739-753. In Persian.
- Udayakumara, E.P.N. & Shrestha, R.P. (2011). Assessing livelihood for improvement: Samanalawewa reservoir environs, Sri Lanka, International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 18(4): 366-376.
- Veisi, F., & Nikkhah, C. (2019). Analysis of the role of tourism in sustainable livelihoods of rural households, Case Study: Oraman distrct in Sarvabad County, Geography and Planning, 22(66): 329-348.
- World Tourism Organization. (2018). UNWTO Tourism Highlights, www.unwto.org
- Yousefi, M. (2016). Ecotourism and Sustainable Livelihoods of Local Communities, Biosphere, 11(2): 35-38. In Persian.
- Zahedi, Sh. (2007). Fundamentals of sustainable tourism and ecotourism (emphasis on the environment), Allameh Tabataba'i University Press, first edition, 232 pages. In Persian.