Document Type : Research Paper


1 Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran

2 Horticultural Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran



Human activities in the range of natural resources affect the sustainability or instability of ecosystems. Therefore, data interpretation and analysis related to these activities can play a pivotal role in assessing environmental issues and problems. The aim of this study was to analyze human activities in the watershed to investigate the development of rainfed orchards on sloping lands and the stability or instability of related activities. For this purpose, field studies were conducted in two regions of arid (Birjand) and Mediterranean (Khalkhal) and the impact of the orchard estabilishment on the lands of these regions was analyzed. Contrary to expectations, in the arid region with about 170 mm of rainfall, the orchard estabilishment was successful and accompanied by sustainable development, and in the Mediterranean region with more than 350 mm of rainfall, this project was considered failed and unstable. One of the most important factors for the success of this project in the arid region was having indigenous knowledge in creating dams in suitable areas by collecting runoff and sediments, according to the parent materials and the resulting soil. In contrast, the lack of indigenous or formal knowledge in the Mediterranean region, followed by a lack of attention to soil constraints, some of which are affected by parent materials, is one of the main reasons for the failure of the project in this region. Based on the results, For sustainable management special attention should be paid to indigenous knowledge along with formal knowledge.


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