بررسی و معرفی گونه‌های گیاهی در روند پالایش خاک اراضی آلوده به فلزات سنگین ناشی از آبیاری با آب‌های خاکستری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، عمران سازه هیدرولیکی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد

2 استادیار گروه عمران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد

3 استادیار گروه فارماکوگنوزی دانشکده داروسازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی مشهد، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه بررسی پتانسیل برخی گیاهان برای گیاه‌پالایی خاک آلوده به فلزات سرب، روی، کادمیوم و مس می­باشد. برای انجام این مطالعه چهار گونۀ گیاهی بومادران (Achillea  millefolium)، آگروپایرون (Agropyron elongatum)، بوفالوگرس (Bouteloua dactyloides) و آرتمیزیا (Artemisia sieberi) کشت شدند و نمونه‌های گیاهی با پساب تصفیه‌خانه آبیاری شدند. نتایج نشان داد در مورد گیاهان، سه گیاه B. dactyloides، A. sieberi، A. millefolium انتقال دهندۀ خوب فلزات به اندام­های هوایی خود می­باشند که مناسب برای استخراج گیاهی (مهم­ترین تکنیک گیاه‌پالایی) هستند. گونۀ  A. elongatum  فلزات مس و سرب را بیشتر در ریشه تجمع می­دهد. این خصوصیت مناسب فن‌آوری تثبیت گیاهی می­باشد. همچنین توانایی چهار گونۀ گیاهی جهت گیاه‌پالایی، به شرح زیر است­: B. dactyloides < A. millefolium < A. sieberi = A. elongatum­. گیاه B. dactyloides جهت گیاه‌پالایی هر چهار فلز سنگین مناسب می‌باشد. برای گیاه B. dactyloides مقدار فاکتور انتقال گیاهی (TF) در فلزات روی، مس، سرب و کادمیوم به ترتیب: 17/1 و 09/1 و 02/1 و 41/1 و مقدار فاکتور غلظت فلز (BCF) برای آن در فلزات فوق به ترتیب: 77/1 و 22/1 و 95/0 و 37/1 می­باشد. با توجه به اینکه گیاه B. dactyloides تحمل بالایی نسبت به خشکسالی و دمای بالا دارد و همچنین مناسب جهت چمن‌کاری می­باشد، پیشنهاد می­شود از این گونه جهت گیاه‌پالایی خاک‌های آلوده به فلزات سنگین مناطق آلوده و همچنین چمن‌کاری استفاده گردد که علاوه بر پاکسازی خاک از فلزات سنگین و مناسب بودن با آب­و­هوای بومی بسیاری از مناطق ایران و نیاز کم به آبیاری، به زیبایی بصری محیط هم کمک می­کند.

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