نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه ارومیه

3 کارشناس ارشد مرتع‌داری، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشگاه فرهنگیان، حکیم فردوسی کرج

5 دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

برای رسیدن به عملکرد دام در سطح مطلوب تأمین نیاز غذایی دام از نظر عناصر معدنی ضروری است. به همین منظور، عناصر معدنی هشت گونة مهم مرتعی و مورد چرای دام‌ـ شامل Ferula ovina، Prangus uloptera، Medicago sativa، Lotus goeblia، Trifolium montanum، Melilotus officinalis، Sanguisorba minor،و Stachys inflate در مراتع ییلاقی طالقان در مراحل مختلف رشد (رشد رویشی، گل‌دهی، و بذردهی) اندازه‏گیری شد. بدین منظور، در هر مرحلة رشد از هر گونه 3 نمونه و برای هر نمونه حداقل 5 پایة گیاهی از نقاط مختلف تیپ‏های گیاهی برداشت شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‏ها با استفاده از تجزیة واریانس یک‌طرفه انجام شد و به ‏منظور مشاهدة منابع تغییرات درون‌گروهی از آزمون دانکن استفاده شد. همچنین، با استفاده از آزمون t مقدار عناصر مذکور با حد بحرانی‌شان برای تأمین نیاز روزانة واحد دامی در حالت نگه‌داری مقایسه شد. نتایج نشان می‏دهد مقادیر عناصر معدنی گونه‏ها در مراحل اولیة رشد بیشتر از مقدار آن‌ها در مراحل پایانی رشد (مرحلة بذردهی) است. ضمن اینکه مقادیر مذکور در هر مرحله از رشد بین گونه‏های مورد بررسی یکسان نیستند. به طور کلی، گونه‏های مورد بررسی از حیث مقادیر کلسیم، آهن، مس، منگنر، و کبالت، به منظور تأمین نیاز روزانة دام، در وضعیت مطلوبی قرار دارند، ولی از نظر عناصر پُرمصرف مانند مقادیر سدیم و منیزیم در مراحل مختلف رشد و به‌ویژه در مراحل پایانی رشد از وضعیت مطلوبی به منظور تأمین نیاز روزانة واحد دامی برخوردارند. این امر بیانگر آن است که مطلوبیت علوفة مرتع در زمان‌های مختلف چرا از حیث عناصر معدنی یکسان نیست. طبیعی است که بسته به شرایط سال ممکن است مقادیر عناصر معدنی گیاهان قدری تغییر یابد، ولی، به دلیل هزینه‌بربودن تعیین عناصر معدنی، می‏توان از نتایج مذکور به منظور برآورد نیاز روزانة دام در سال‏های مختلف استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Mineral element values of 8 rangeland species in highland pastures of Taleghan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Arzani 1
  • javad Motamedi(torkan) 2
  • Mahmood Hamidian 3
  • Zahra Arzani 4
  • Majid Akhshi 5

1 Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran

3 Graduate Student, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

4 University of Farhanghian, Hakim Ferdosy, Karaj, Iran

5 Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

چکیده [English]

To achieve the desired level of animal performance providing animal food supplies containing mineral elements is essential. For this purpose, mineral elements of 8 important rangeland species, including Ferula ovina, Prangus uloptera, Medicago sativa, Lotus goeblia, Trifolium montanum, Melilotus officinalis, Sanguisorba minor and Stachys inflate, were measured at different growth stages in the summer pastures of Taleghan. Therefore, at each growth stage 3 samples were taken and for each sample at least five vegetable bases were removed from different vegetation types. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and to see the sources of variation within groups the Duncan test was utilized. Moreover, T-test was used to compare the values of mentioned elements with the critical level to provide the daily requirements of an animal unit in the maintenance mode. The results show that the values of minerals at the early stages of growth are more than those at the final stages of development (seeding stage). Moreover, the mentioned values in each stage of the growth are not uniform among the studied species. In general, the studied species are in good condition in terms of the calcium, iron, copper, cobalt and manganese values for meeting the daily needs of animals. However, they are not in optimal condition in terms of the highly consumed elements such as sodium and magnesium values at different growth stages, especially at later stages of growth, for meeting the daily needs of animals. This indicates that the desirability of grassland forage at different times of grazing is not identical regarding the mineral elements. It is normal that depending on the year’s conditions the values of plant mineral elements may change slightly; however, due to the cost of determining mineral elements, the results can be used to estimate the daily animal needs in different years.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • mineral elements
  • daily animal need
  • critical level
  • growth stage
  • pastures of Taleghan
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