ارزیابی پایداری خاکدانه‏ ها و تعیین مکانیسم ناپایداری خاک‏ های حوضۀ آبخیز طالقان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه یاسوج

2 استاد دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

3 دانشیار مؤسسة تحقیقات جنگل‏ها و مراتع کشور

4 دانشیار دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

5 دانشیار پژوهشکدة حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری

6 دانشجوی دورة دکتری محیط زیست دانشگاه ملایر

چکیده

با توجه به محدودیت‏های موجود در تعیین میزان حساسیت خاک به فرسایش آبی یا فرسایش‏پذیری خاک از طریق آزمون‏های میدانی، کاربردِ روش‏های آزمایشگاهی روی نمونه‏های کوچک خاک (کمتر از 100 گرم)، افزون بر ساده‌بودن، نیازمند هزینه و وقت کمتری است. نتایجِ پژوهش‏های مختلف در این زمینه بیانگر آن است که از بین روش‏های مختلف آزمایشگاهی، مبنی بر استفاده از خصوصیات خاک، آزمون‏های مربوط به ساختمان خاک و پایداری خاکدانه‏ها مؤثرتر است و به آن‌ها بیشتر توجه شده است. در این تحقیق، با تکیه بر مشاهدات و تغییرات ماکروسکوپی در مقیاس واحدهای همگن، در بخشی از خاک‏های حوضة آبخیز طالقان، به وسعت 3260 هکتار، 84 نقطه به عنوان نقاط نمونه‏برداری خاک انتخاب شد. به منظور تمایز بین مکانیسم‏های شکستگی خاکدانه‏ها و ارزیابی رفتار ساختمانی خاک‏ها در  شرایط مختلف محیطی، پایداری خاکدانه‏ها با لحاظ‏کردن سه تیمار خیس‏شدن سریع خاکدانه‏ها، خیس‏شدن آهستة خاکدانه‏ها و شکستگی ناشی از تکان‏دادن خاک پس از خیس‏کردن اولیه و با استفاده از روش لی‏بیسونایس اندازه‏گیری شد. اثر اَشکال مختلف فرسایش آبی بر پایداری خاکدانه‌ها نیز با استفاده از شاخص پایداری مرطوب خاکدانه‏ها بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد مکانیسم‏های مختلف شکستگی خاکدانه‏ها اثر معنی‏داری در میزان شکستگی خاکدانه‏ها دارد. مکانیسم ناپایداری خاک‏های طالقان فرایند واریختگی است که در اثر فشار هوای محبوس‏شده در هنگام خیس‏شدن سریع خاکدانه‏ها ایجاد می‏شود و این شرایط هنگام وقوع باران‏های شدید روی خاک خشک رخ می‏دهد. همچنین، نتایج نشان داد اختلاف معنی‏داری بین پایداری مرطوب خاکدانه‏ها در اَشکال مختلف فرسایش آبی وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of aggregate stability and determination of instability mechanism of marly soils in Taleghan watershed

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Armin 1
  • Hassan Ahmadi 2
  • hasan Rouhipour 3
  • Ali Salajegheh 4
  • mohammad Hossein Mahdian 5
  • Vajihe Ghorban nia kheybari 6
1 Assistant professor of collage of natural resources, university of Yasuj
2 Professor of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch
3 Associated professors of Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands
4 Associated professor of collage of Natural Resources, university of Tehran
5 Associated professor of Soil conservation and Watershed management Research Institute
6 Ph.D. student of environmental science of Malayer University
چکیده [English]

Due to the constraints in determining of soil susceptibility to water erosion or soil erodibility through field tests, use of laboratory methods on small soil samples, are easy to implement and far less expensive and time-consuming. among different laboratory methods based on the soil properties, those relating to aggregate stability have received much attention. In this study, by relying on observations and changes in the macroscopic scale of homogeneous work units in marly soils of taleghan watershed, with 3260 hectares in area, 84 points as the soil sampling points were selected.
In order to distinction between aggregate breakdown mechanisms and assessing of soil structural behavior in different environmental conditions, aggregate stability is measured with respect to three treatments fast wetting, slow wetting and stirring after pre-wetting using Le Bissonnais method. Results showed that aggregate breakdown mechanisms have a significant influence on aggregate stability. The instability main mechanism of marly soils in Taleghan watershed is slaking that caused by the compression of entrapped air during fast wetting and this situation can occur during rain storms on dry soils and irrigation flooding. So it seems that the method of agricultural land irrigation can be one of the most important soil erosion factors in the study area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aggregate breakdown mechanisms
  • Taleghan watershed
  • aggregate stability
  • marl
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