بررسی تأثیر مالچ سیمانی بر تثبیت ماسه های روان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه یزد

2 کارشناس‌ارشد مهندسی منابع طبیعی، مدیریت مناطق بیابانی

چکیده

یکی از روش‏های معمول برای کنترل حرکت ماسه‏های روان مالچ‏پاشی بر سطح آن‏هاست. تا کنون در ایران از مالچ‏های نفتی برای تثبیت تپه‏های ماسه‏ای استفاده می‏شده است. تخریب محیط زیست به وسیلة مالچ‏های نفتی و همچنین هزینه‏های زیاد استفاده از آن‏ها باعث شده است که مراکز پژوهشی کشور در تحقیق بر روی تغییرِ نوع و شیوه‏های مالچ‌پاشی فعال‌ شوند. در این تحقیق، برای نخستین بار در کشور ایران، از نسبت‏های مختلف سیمان و آهک و ماسة بادی به عنوان مالچ طبیعی استفاده شد. بدین منظور، از تپه‌های ماسه‌ای دشت یزد- اردکان به عنوان بستر و ترکیب‌های مختلف سیمان پرتلند، ماسة بادی و آهک به عنوان تیمار‏های مالچ سیمانی استفاده شد. به هر تیمار یک لیتر آب اضافه شد. سپس، بر روی پلات‏هایی به ابعاد 100 × 30 و 30 سانتی‌متر عمق ماسة بادی پاشیده شد. این تحقیق در قالب طرح آماری کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. سایر عوامل فیزیکی، مانند ضخامت، مقاومت فشاری سله‏های ایجادشده و میزان فرسایش‏پذیری از سطح تیمارها، اندازه‏گیری شد. داده‏ها با نرم‌افزار SPSS تجزیه و تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد، با افزایش مقدار سیمان، مقاومت سله‏های ایجادشده در سطح خاک افزایش می‏‌یابد. از آنجا که تیمار ترکیبی 400 گرم سیمان و 10 گرم آهک و 800 گرم ماسه پاسخ‌گوی حداقل شرایط فیزیکی لازم برای تثبیت ماسه‏های روان بود، این تیمار مناسب‏ترین تیمار انتخاب شد. هزینه‏های اجرایی مالچ جدید نیز حدود 30 درصد هزینه‏های مالچ نفتی برآورد می‏شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


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[2] Ahmadi, H. and Ekhtesasi, Mr. (2000). Survay of effect of gravelly mulch in reduction of wind erosion in dagh lands clayey-salty non-renewable with biological methods, Biaban, 5(2), 1-13(in Persian).
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[4] Armbrust, D.V. (1977). A review of mulches to control wind erosion, Transactions of the ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers), 20, 904-910.
[5] Dehdashtian, M. (2009). Environmental effects of application of oil mulch, Journal of Forest and Rangeland, 81, 21 (in Persian).
[6] Ekhtesasi, M.R. (1992). Report of design and manufacturing of the Wind Erosion Meter (or portable wind tunnel), Proceedings of the first conference on problems of desert and arid lands, Tehran University (in Persian).
[7] Ekhtesasi, M.R., Akhavan Ghalibaf, M., Azimzadeh, H.R. and Emtehani, M.H. (2003). Study of the effects of salts on the wind erodibility of soil using Wind Erosion Meter(WEM), Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 56(1-2) (in Persian).
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[10] Li, Xiao-Yan and Liu, Lian-You (2003). Effect of gravel mulch on aeolian dust accumulation in the semiarid region of northwest China, Soil and Tillage Research, 70(1), 73-81, doi: 10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00137-X.
[11] Li, Xiao-Yan, Liu, Lian-You and Gong, Jia-Dong (2001). Influence of pebble mulch on soil erosion by wind and trapping capacity for windblown sediment, Soil and Tillage Research, 59(3-4), 137-142, doi: 10.1016/S0167-1987(01)00158-1.
[12] Lyles, L., Schrandt, R.L. and Schmeidler, N.F. (1974). Commercial soil stabilizers for temporary wind erosion control, Transactions of the ASA E, 17, 1015-1019.
[13] Majdi, H., Karrimian Eghbal, M., Karimzade, H. and Jalalian, A. (2005). The effect of clay mulch on wind erosion yield, Journal of Sciences and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 10(3), 137-148 (in Persian).
[14] Meamarian, H. (2005). Engineering Geology & Geotechnique, Tehran University Press, 990pp (in Persian).
[15] Miri Solaiman, J. (2007). Wind erosion threshold velocity mapping using geostatistics method in Sistan region, MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol (in Persian).
[16] Presley, D. and Tatarko, J. (2009). Principles of wind erosion and its control, Kansas State University, Department of Agronomy, K-State Research and Extension Publication MF-2860.
[17] Refahi, H.G. (1999). Wind erosion and its control, Tehran University Press 320pp (in Persian).
[18] Woodruff, N.P., Dickerson, J.D., Banbury, E.E., Erhart, A.B. and Lundquist, M.C. (1976). Selected trees and shrubs evaluated for single-row windbreaks in the central Great Plains, USDA, ARS, NC-37.
[19] Yang, Q., Zuo, H., Xiao, X., Wang, Sh., Chen, B. and Chen, J. (2012). Modelling the effects of plastic mulch on water, heat and CO2 fluxes over cropland in an arid region, Journal of Hydrology, 452-453, 102.
[20] Zhu Zhenda, Zou Bengong and Yang, Youlin (1985). The characterization of sand dune and its stabilization in China, Sand transport & desertification in arid land, World Scientific, 438-449pp.
[1] Ahmadi, H. (1998). Applied Geomorphology, Volume II: Wind erosion, Tehran University Press, 570pp (in Persian).
[2] Ahmadi, H. and Ekhtesasi, Mr. (2000). Survay of effect of gravelly mulch in reduction of wind erosion in dagh lands clayey-salty non-renewable with biological methods, Biaban, 5(2), 1-13(in Persian).
[3] Ahmadi, H. and Nakhjavani, F. (1970). Wind erosion in Khuzestan, Faculty of Forestry Publication, Journal of Forestry, No. 23, Tehran University (in Persian).
[4] Armbrust, D.V. (1977). A review of mulches to control wind erosion, Transactions of the ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers), 20, 904-910.
[5] Dehdashtian, M. (2009). Environmental effects of application of oil mulch, Journal of Forest and Rangeland, 81, 21 (in Persian).
[6] Ekhtesasi, M.R. (1992). Report of design and manufacturing of the Wind Erosion Meter (or portable wind tunnel), Proceedings of the first conference on problems of desert and arid lands, Tehran University (in Persian).
[7] Ekhtesasi, M.R., Akhavan Ghalibaf, M., Azimzadeh, H.R. and Emtehani, M.H. (2003). Study of the effects of salts on the wind erodibility of soil using Wind Erosion Meter(WEM), Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 56(1-2) (in Persian).
[8] Hagen, L.J. (2010). Erosion by wind: Modeling, In: Lal, R. editor, Encyclopedia of Soil Science, Second Edition, London: Taylor and Francis publishers.
[9] Heydari, M., Ahmadi, H., Ekhtesasi, M.R. and Darini, Javad (2010). Investigation of gravel mulch on wind erosion with W.E. Meter, Proceedings of the second conference on wind erosion and dust storms, Yazd University (in Persian).
[10] Li, Xiao-Yan and Liu, Lian-You (2003). Effect of gravel mulch on aeolian dust accumulation in the semiarid region of northwest China, Soil and Tillage Research, 70(1), 73-81, doi: 10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00137-X.
[11] Li, Xiao-Yan, Liu, Lian-You and Gong, Jia-Dong (2001). Influence of pebble mulch on soil erosion by wind and trapping capacity for windblown sediment, Soil and Tillage Research, 59(3-4), 137-142, doi: 10.1016/S0167-1987(01)00158-1.
[12] Lyles, L., Schrandt, R.L. and Schmeidler, N.F. (1974). Commercial soil stabilizers for temporary wind erosion control, Transactions of the ASA E, 17, 1015-1019.
[13] Majdi, H., Karrimian Eghbal, M., Karimzade, H. and Jalalian, A. (2005). The effect of clay mulch on wind erosion yield, Journal of Sciences and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 10(3), 137-148 (in Persian).
[14] Meamarian, H. (2005). Engineering Geology & Geotechnique, Tehran University Press, 990pp (in Persian).
[15] Miri Solaiman, J. (2007). Wind erosion threshold velocity mapping using geostatistics method in Sistan region, MSc thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol (in Persian).
[16] Presley, D. and Tatarko, J. (2009). Principles of wind erosion and its control, Kansas State University, Department of Agronomy, K-State Research and Extension Publication MF-2860.
[17] Refahi, H.G. (1999). Wind erosion and its control, Tehran University Press 320pp (in Persian).
[18] Woodruff, N.P., Dickerson, J.D., Banbury, E.E., Erhart, A.B. and Lundquist, M.C. (1976). Selected trees and shrubs evaluated for single-row windbreaks in the central Great Plains, USDA, ARS, NC-37.
[19] Yang, Q., Zuo, H., Xiao, X., Wang, Sh., Chen, B. and Chen, J. (2012). Modelling the effects of plastic mulch on water, heat and CO2 fluxes over cropland in an arid region, Journal of Hydrology, 452-453, 102.
[20] Zhu Zhenda, Zou Bengong and Yang, Youlin (1985). The characterization of sand dune and its stabilization in China, Sand transport & desertification in arid land, World Scientific, 438-449pp.