تهیۀ نقشۀ تخریب خاک بر مبنای روش ژئوپدولوژی و مدل گلاسود با استفاده از سامانۀ اطلاعات جغرافیایی در شرق استان قزوین

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم خاک دانشگاه زنجان

2 کارشناس‌ارشد علوم خاک دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار علوم خاک دانشگاه تهران

4 استاد علوم خاک دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

امروزه، توجه به اهمیت حفاظت از منابع خاک در کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی با هدف جلوگیری از تخریب و انحطاط آن ضروری به نظر می‏رسد. تخریب‏ خاک و اراضی، به منزلة عاملی مستقیم، در تهدید محیط زیست جهانی، رفاه انسان و جامعه مشهود است. این تحقیق به منظور تهیة نقشة تخریب خاک در شرق استان قزوین انجام شد. نقشة خاک منطقه، با استفاده از روش ژئوپدولوژی، از تلفیق لایه‏های اطلاعاتی لیتولوژیک، ژئومورفیک و پدوژنیک در محیط سامانة اطلاعات جغرافیایی تهیه شد. اطلاعات به‌دست‌آمده از نقشة خاک همراه مطالعات میدانی به عنوان ورودی در مدل گلاسود به کار برده شد و سرانجام نقشة تخریب خاک منطقه تهیه شد. در این تحقیق واحد‏های نقشة خاک مبنای بررسی وضعیت تخریب در منطقه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد کمتر از 25 درصد از اراضی مطالعه‌شده دارای درجة کم‌تخریب‌اند و در شرایط فعلی به مدیریت خاصی نیاز ندارند، ولی در سایر بخش‏‏های منطقه تخریب خاک با درجات مختلف مشاهده شد. تخریب خواص شیمیایی خاک‌ـ شامل کاهش مواد آلی، هدررفت مواد غذایی و شوری خاک‏ها‌ـ از مهم‌ترین جنبه‏های تأثیر‏گذار در روند تخریب خاک‏های منطقه است. از مجموع 16630 هکتار اراضی مطالعه‌شده حدود 4028 هکتار از اراضی در کلاس تخریب کم، 5987 هکتار در کلاس تخریب متوسط، 5128 هکتار در کلاس تخریب زیاد و 866 هکتار در کلاس تخریب بسیار زیاد خاک قرار دارند. بنابراین، با توجه به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، اقدامات مدیریتی برای جلوگیری از گسترش این فرایند در منطقه پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mapping Soil degradation based on Geopedological method and GLASOD model using GIS in East Qazvin Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • khaled Hajimaleki 1
  • rouhollah mousavi 2
  • Manochehr Gorji 3
  • Fereidon Sarmadian 4
1 Student of Master of Soil Science, Soil Science Department, university of Tehran
2 Student of Master of Soil Science, Soil Science Department, university of Tehran
3 Associate of Soil Science, Soil Science Department, university of Tehran
4 Professor of Soil Science, Soil Science Department, university of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, the importance of soil conservation in agriculture and natural resources, with the goal of preventing its deterioration and degradation are necessary. Soil and land degradation as a direct cause of the threat to the global environment and human welfare is evident. In this study soil degradation mapping was carried out in East Qazvin. Soil map using geopedological method by integration of information layer of lithology, geomorphic and pedogenic was prepared in ArcGIS9.3 software. Data from soil maps with field studies was used as input in GLASOD model and the soil degradation map was prepared. In this study soil map units was used as basis of soil degradation status investigating in the region. Results showed that less than 25% of the study area has a low degree of degradation and in the present circumstances do not require specific management actions, but in other parts of the region, with various degrees of soil degradation was observed. Soil chemical properties degradation include decrease of soil organic matter, loss of soil nutrients and soil salinity are the most important aspects affecting on soil degradation of region. At total of 16,630 hectares of land, about 4028 ,5987, 5128 and 866 respectively low, middle, high and very high soil degradation class are located. Thus according to the results to prevent the spread of this process in this area, management actions is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil degradation
  • Geopedological method
  • GLASOD model
  • Management of soil resources
  • Soil degradation class
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