مدل‌سازی غلظت رسوب حاصل از فرسایش شیاری با استفاده از سیستم نروفازی (ANFIS) در منطقه نیمه‌خشک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، ایران.

2 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، ایران.

3 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، ایران.

4 استادیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، ایران.

چکیده

در بسیاری از مناطق نیمه‌خشک ایران فرسایش خاک به‌عنوان یک معضل محیط‌زیستی بر حاصل‌خیزی خاک، کیفیت آب و زیست‌بوم‌های آبی اثر می‌گذارد. نرخ خاک برداشت شده براساس نوع فرسایش و فرآیندهای تخریب زمین متفاوت است. فرسایش شیاری معمولاً در مواقع بارش شدید بر روی دامنه‌های شیب‌دار ایجاد می‌شود و شرایط انتقال رسوب در آن نامتعادل است. در این تحقیق با استفاده از مدل نروفازی اقدام به شبیه‌سازی غلظت رسوب حاصل از فرسایش شیاری شده است. یک‌سری از روابط تجربی و پارامترهایی که برای شبیه‌سازی هیدرودینامیک شیار، جدا شدن خاک و ظرفیت حمل و انتقال رسوب که بر فرسایش حاصل از شیار مؤثرند به عنوان ورودی مدل در نظر گرفته شدند. فرآیند توسعه و ارزیابی مدل با استفاده از مجموعه داده‌های مشاهده‌ای در 27 شیار آزمایشی با دبی 12 لیتر بر دقیقه مقایسه شد. در این پژوهش برای تعیین ترکیب بهینه ورودی‌ها  از روش گام به گام از میان 10 پارامتر ورودی مؤثر در برآورد غلظت رسوب شامل ویژگی‌های خاک، توپوگرافی و پوشش گیاهی استفاده شد. براساس نتایج روش گام به گام، چهار پارامتر درصد شیب، درصد پوشش گیاهی، درصد رس و تنش برشی جریان برای مدل‌سازی انتخاب شدند. ارزیابی مدل نشان داد که مدل نروفازی با  ضریب تبیین، جذر میانگین مربعات خطا و میانگین خطای اریب، به ترتیب، 697/0، 5/30 و 0/1 قادر به پیش‌بینی قابل قبول غلظت رسوب حاصل از فرسایش شیاری بود. 

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