بررسی فصل و روش مناسب کشت گونۀ Vicia subvillosa در منطقۀ تلمادره مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی مازندران

2 استادیار پژوهشی مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور

چکیده

نیاز به دانش فنی برای توسعۀ گسترش کشت هر یک از گونه­های سهیم در تولید علوفۀ مراتع، با توجه به شرایط منطقه آشکار گردید. در این راستا ، بذر گونۀ Vicia subvillosa برای بررسی روش­های مختلف کشت، از حدود ارتفاعی 1900 متری جادۀ آزادشهر به شاهرود جمع­آوری و کاشت شد. هدف از بررسی دستیابی به فصل بهینه و روش کارآمد کشت این گونه در عرصۀ مراتع با وضعیت فقیر یا خیلی فقیر بود. این گونه درمنطقۀ تلمادره، ایستگاه آبخوانداری پشت کوه ساری با متوسط بارندگی 350 میلی متر و اقلیم نیمه خشک سرد کاشته شد. دو تیمار بذرکاری و بذر پاشی در دو تاریخ کشت پاییزه و بهاره، طرح پایۀ آماری کرت­های خرد شده در قالب بلوک­های کاملاً تصادفی، با تیمار اصلی تاریخ کشت و تیمار فرعی روش کاشت در سه تکرار مورد مقایسه قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد، بین فصل کاشت در بهار و پاییز و همچنین بین دو روش کشت بذر پاشی و بذرکاری تفاوت معنی­داری وجود دارد. جوانه زنی و زنده مانی کشت در فصل پاییز (جوانه زنی50/30 %، زنده مانی 97/20 %) نسبت به کشت بهاره (جوانه زنی50/21 %، زنده مانی33/15 %) ارجحیت دارد. هم چنین کشت به روش بذرکاری (جوانه زنی61/32 %، زنده مانی39/22 %) نسبت به بذر پاشی (جوانه‏زنی 39/21 %، زنده مانی92/13%) در مرتع برتری دارد. لذا امکان زراعت این گونه در ایستگاه محل آزمایش و مناطق مشابه آب و هوایی برای تولید علوفه وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


[1]        Abbasi, A.R., Sarvestani, R., Mohammadi, B. and Baghery, A. (2014). Drought stress-induced changes at physiological and biochemical levels in some common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) genotypes, Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 16(3), 505-516.
[2]        Alzueta, C., Caballero, R., Rebole, A., Trevino, J and Gil, A. (2001). Crude protein fractions in common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) fresh forage during pod filling Journal of animal science, 79 , 2449 – 2455.
[3]        Arzani, H., Motamedi, J., Aghajanlu, F., Rashtvand, S., Zareii, A., (2017). Quality important range species in Ghazvin’ s Alamout and Zanjan’s Badamestan mountain ranges, Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management,69 (4), 805-818.
[4]        Asadi, G.A. and Khorramdel S. (2014). Effects of different ratio of barley and hairy vetch intercropping on yield, plant nitrogen content, weed population and diversity, Electronic Journal Of Crop Production, Spring, 7(1), 13 -156.
[5]        Asghari Meidani J. and Karimi E. (2011). Effects of different methods of tillage on Vicia (Maragheh variety) yield in rotation with cereal in dry land condition, Journal of Agricultural Science (University Of Tabriz), Spring, 21(2), 125-133.
[6]        Asghari Meidani, J. and Karimi, E. (2013). The effect of different depth cultivation Vicia in dry land condition in Maragheh, Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, Autumn, 11(3), 430-436.
[7]        Asghari Meidani, J. and Karimi, E. (2015). The effect of different mixture ratio of barley and Vicia seeds on their yield in dry land condition, Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, Winter, 12 (4), 677-682.
[8]        Asri, Y. (2011). Range plant of Iran Vol.1: Diecotyledons, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran.
[9]        Azarakhshi, M., Mahdavi, M., Ahmadi, H., Arzani, H. and Farzadmehr, J.,(2016). Investigation of the role of temporal distribution of precipitation on forage production value of the rangeland, Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management, 68(4), 885-899.
[10]    Azarnivand, H. and Zarechahoki, M. A., (2008). Range improvement, University of Tehran press, 54p.
[11]    Bafandeh Rozbahani, A. (2012). Evaluation of quantity and quality of forage in intercropping of vetch (Vicia panonica) and grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) with annual grasses under rain fed conditions of Markazi province in Iran, Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 2-29(1), 81-95.
[12]    Chaichi, M.R. and Daryaei, F. (2006). Evaluation of forage yield in sole and intercropping of sorghum and alfalfa, In: Proceedings of First National Forage Crops Congress of Iran, pp77.
[13]    Fathi Rezaee, V., Valizadeh, M., Alizadeh, Kh. and Zehtab Salmasi, S. (2010). Evaluation of bitter vetch lines under irrigated and rainfed conditions, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production, 2/20(1), 23-37.
[14]    Fukai, S. and Trenbath, B.R. (1993). Processes determining intercrop productivity and yields of components crops, Field Crops Res., 34, 247-271.
[15]    Ghorbani, A. (2015). Land use mapping and ecological capability evaluation of dry farming lands (based on slope) for converting to pasture in Zilbar-Chay watershed using GIS, Geographic Space, Winter, 14(48), 103-122.
[16]    Ghorbanian, D., Ghodrati, M., Sharafieh, H. ,Mozaffari M. and Moslem, A. (2012).Comparison of cultivation and establishment of different xerophyte species for restoration and enhancement of vegetation in arid lands, Iranian Journal Of Range And Desert Research, Fall, 19(3), 443-456.
[17]    Jankju M., Noedoost, F. and Rafiei, F., (2016). Comparing plant functional types in an old-field and a natural rangeland vegetation, Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management, 68 (4), 835-851.
[18]    Hamzei, J. and Borbor, A. (2014). Effect of different soil tillage methods and cover crops on yield and yield components of corn and some soil characteristics, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production, autumn, 24(3), 35-47.
[19]    Heidari Sharif Abad, H. and Dorry, M. A. (2002). Forage legumes, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Vol. 1, Tehran.
[20]    Kakaeian, A.M., Mohammadi G. Eghbal Ghobadi, M. and Najaphy, A. (2015). Effects of rye and common vetch cover crops as pure and mixed on soil physicochemical characteristics, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science, 25(2), 48-64.
[21]    Latify, S., Yousefi, A. and Jamshidi, K. (2015). Effect of living mulch application on yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars and weed control, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production, summer, 25(2), 33-45.
[22]    Mirfakhraee, N., Moghaddam, M. and Aharizad, S. (2010). Evaluation of Vicia dasycarpa genotypes under drought stress conditions, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production, spring, 2/20(1), 133-141.
[23]    Mohebbi, A., Khalifezadeh, R., Zandi Esfehan, E. and Nasiri Dashtaki, H., (2017). Comparing the yield of Vicia villosa under different seasons and sowing methods (Case study: Homand Absard Research Station), Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 23(4), 679-687.
[24]    Nakhzari Moghaddam, A., Chaichi, M.R., Mazaheri, D., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Majnoon Hosseini, N. and Noorinia, A. (2010). The effects of corn (Zea mays) and green gram (Vigna radiata) intercropping on some quantity characteristics of forage and weed biomass, Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, Winter, 40 (4), 151-159.
[25]    Razmazar,V., Torbatinejad, N.M., Seifdavati, J. and Hasani, S. (2012). Evaluation of chemical characteristics, rumen fermentation and digestibility of Vicia sativa, Lathyrus sativus and Vicia ervilia grain by in vitro methods, Animal Science Researches (Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz), Summer, 22(2), 107-119.
[26]    Safari ,H., Arzani, H. and Tavili, A. (2017). Identification of appropriate rangeland restoration methods based on environmental data (Case study: Taleghan rangeland), Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management,69 (3), 611-619.
[27]    Sherbaf Esfahani, A.H., Basiri, M., Karimzadeh, M.R. and Modares Hashemi, S. M. (2009). The effect of seed pelleting and germination inhibitors on Medicago sativa, Vicia villosa and Onobrychis viciaefolia for fall seeding, Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, Summer, 16(2), 137-149.
[28]    Singh, M.K., Pal, S.K., Thakur, R. and Verma, U.N. (1997). Energy input-output relationship of cropping systems. Indian Journal.Agriculture Science, 67 (6), 262-264.
[29]    Toloee, M., Yousefi, A., Pouryousef, M., Saba, J. and Latify, S. (2016). Integration of living mulch and stale seedbed for weed management in maize (Zea mays L.), Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production, Spring, 26(1), 83-97.
[30]    Vaesi, B., Bavei,V., Abrahim Pour, F. and Mohammadi, S. A. (2011). Study on grain yield, biomass and wet forage yield of some promising lines of Vicia narbonces in warm dry land condition at Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad , Agronomy Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 90, 74-82.
[31]    Yuldashev M. P., Muminova, B. A., Drenin, A. A. and Botiro, E. Kh.V. (2007). Flavonoids from the aerial part of Vicia subvillosa, Chemistry of Natural Compounds, 43(1), 34-36.
[32]    Zamanian, M., Siadat, S.A.,Fathi, Gh.,Choukan, R.,Jafari, A.A. and Bakhshandeh A. (2013). Assessment of required growing degree days for phenological stages of four clover species in different planting dates, Seed And Plant Production Journal, 29-2(2), 149-167.