اثر پوزولان‌های طبیعی و فشردگی خاک در کنترل فرسایش مارن‌ها با استفاده از شبیه‌ساز باران صحرایی (مطالعۀ موردی: منطقۀ اسلام‌قلعه، خراسان رضوی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع‌طبیعی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه، خراسان رضوی، ایران

2 گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

چکیده

فرسایش خاک بر سلامت آبخیزها اثر گذاشته و پیامدهای منفی متعددی به­دنبال دارد. مارن از سنگ­های حساس به فرسایش است که به دلیل ویژگی­های فیزیکوشیمیایی خاص، استقرار پوشش در آن­مشکل و لذا نیازمند مدیریت است. یکی از روش­های بهسازی خاک، فشردگی دینامیکی است که با دستگاه­هایی مانند غلتک­ها اعمال می­شود. افزودن پوزولان نیز جهت تغییر خصوصیات فیزیکی و مکانیکی خاک، از دیگر روش­های اصلاحی است،چرا که پوزولان­ها، در حضور آب به صورت مواد پایدار غیرحلال، از خود خاصیت گیرشی بروز می­دهند. لذا در این پژوهش تلاش گردید تا نقش میزان فشردگی خاک (با غلتک استوانه­ای صاف به وزن­های 0، 20، 25، 30 و 35 کیلوگرم) و افزودن پوزولان­های طبیعی (به میزان 0، 50، 100، 150 و 200 گرم در مترمربع) از نوع پومیس تفتان بر تثبیت مارن­ها در منطقۀ اسلام­قلعه خراسان رضوی ارزیابی شود. طرح آزمایشی در قالب فاکتوریل با سه تکرار و مجموعاً 75 پلات صحرایی 30 در30 سانتی­متری تحت بارشی 10 دقیقه­ای با شدت 8/0 میلی­متر در دقیقه و در شیب ۵/۱۵ درجه اجرا شد. نتایج تحلیل آماری در سطح اعتماد 95 درصد نشان داد که با در نظر گرفتن توأم سه متغیر رواناب، تولید و غلظت رسوب، اثرات اصلی تیمارهای فشردگی خاک و پوزولان معنادار (000/0sig.=) و اثر ترکیبی آن­ها غیرمعنادار (780/0sig.=) است. تیمار فشردگی خاک اثر معنی­دار (000/0sig.=) و افزایشی بر تولید رواناب و رسوب دارد، اما اثر تیمار پوزولان بر رسوب کاهشی و معنی­دار (000/0sig.=) بوده و بر رواناب اثر معنی­داری ندارد (709/0sig.=). همچنین اثر ترکیبی دو تیمار بر متغیرهای رواناب، تولید و غلظت رسوب، غیرمعنی­دار به دست آمد. لذا فشردگی خاک به دلیل تخریب سله سطحی و ساختمان مارن­ها مناسب نبوده اما با توجه به بهای پایین و در دسترس بودن پوزولان­های طبیعی، برای عملیات تثبیت مارن­ها به عنوان گزینه­ای اقتصادی و مناسب پیشنهاد می­گردد.

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