تجارت آب مجازی و کاربرد آن در حوزۀ آبخیز (مطالعۀ موردی: حوزۀ آبخیز برآفتاب حاجی‌آباد و پایاب رودان، استان هرمزگان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد آبخیزداری، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس.

2 استادیار دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع‌طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس.

چکیده

مشکل افت آب‌های زیرزمینی و کمبود آب در اغلب دشت‌های استان هرمزگان امری اجتناب‌ناپذیر است که در اثر استفادۀ بی‌رویه و عدم مدیریت مناسب در جهت عرضه و تقاضای آب در بخش کشاورزی رخ داده است. در تحقیق حاضر به محاسبۀ بیلان آب مجازی در بخش کشاورزی (صادرات و واردات آب مجازی) و ارزش آن در دو حوزۀ آبخیز با دو اقلیم متفاوت در شمال (حوزۀ آبخیز برآفتاب حاجی‌آباد) و شرق (حوزۀ آبخیز پایاب رودان) استان هرمزگان پرداخته شده است. نتایج نشان داد حوزۀ آبخیز شمالی استان هرمزگان به­عنوان صادرکنندۀ آب مجازی است که عمدۀ حجم آب مجازی مربوط به محصول گندم و نخیلات به ترتیب به 14 و 18/0میلیون مترمکعب و حوزۀ آبخیز شرقی استان مربوط به نخیلات (8/0میلیون مترمکعب) و مرکبات (6/0میلیون مترمکعب) است و حجم عمدۀ واردات آب مجازی مربوط به گندم و برنج است. همچنین طبق نتایج به­دست آمده، حوزۀ آبخیز برآفتاب حاجی‌آباد به­عنوان صادرکنندۀ آب مجازی و حوزۀ آبخیز پایاب رودان به­عنوان وارد کنندۀ آب مجازی است، به‌طوری‌که تراز تجارت آب مجازی در دو حوضه به‌ترتیب 94/11- و 83/17 میلیون مترمکعب و به ترتیب 64 و 67 درصد منابع آب شیرین موجود در دو حوزۀ آبخیز پایاب رودان و برآفتاب حاجی‌آباد صرف تولید محصولات کشاورزی شده و شاخص خودکفایی آب مجازی، به‌ترتیب 86 و 81 درصد و میزان شاخص کم آبی حدود 66 و 69 درصد برآورد شد که حاکی از کمبود شدید منابع آب در دو حوزۀ آبخیز است.

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