ابتکارات محلی و دانش بومی در مدیریت اجتماع محور منابع آب (منطقۀ مورد مطالعه: روستای روزکین، بخش ساردوئیه، شهرستان جیرفت)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بیابان‌زدائی، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری آبخیزداری، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران.

3 دانشیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران.

چکیده

ابتکارات محلی از سویی به عنوان فعالیت‌های دسته جمعی خاص، بدون کمک یا مشوق خارجی به منظور کنترل آب‌های زیرزمینی و سطحی تعریف شده است و از سوی دیگر، یکی از مهم‌ترین رویکردهای مدیریتی در منابع آب، رویکرد مدیریت اجتماع محور است که تأکید بر ظرفیت‌سازی و نهادسازی در جوامع محلی برای مدیریت مشارکتی منابع آب دارد. ساختارهای اجتماعی منابع آب یکی از ابعاد دانش بومی در جوامع روستایی ایران محسوب می‌شود که ضرورت دارد در مدیریت منابع آب علاوه بر تحلیل دانش بومی ساختارهای اجتماعی مرتبط با آن نیز مورد تحلیل قرار گیرد. هدف اصلی در این مقاله شناخت ابعاد دانش بومی مرتبط با مدیریت پایدار منابع آب در روستای روزکین بخش ساردوئیه شهرستان جیرفت است. این مطالعه بر اساس روش‌های مردم‌شناسی و رویکردهای کیفی از جمله مشاهدۀ مستقیم و مشارکتی محقق و مصاحبۀ سازمان­یافته با 32 نفر از افراد مطلع و آگاه (کلیۀ کشاورزان) استفاده شده است. در روستای روزکین ساختار اجتماعی خاصی بر مدیریت منابع آب حاکم است که قدمتی بیش از 100 سال در منطقه دارد. همیاری در مدیریت منابع آب یک اصل اساسی در این روستا محسوب می‌شود و نقش‌های اجتماعی ارباب و زَعیم از ابتکارات اجتماعی این روستا در مدیریت منابع آب است. در این روستا تعداد 10 تشکل یا گروه محلی برای مدیریت منابع آب شکل گرفته که هر گروه از ارباب و زَعیم تشکیل شده است. به­طور کلی می‌توان بیان کرد دانش بومی و سنت‌های محلی در این روستا عامل پایداری منابع آب محسوب می‌شود که می‌توان استدلال کرد در ارتقاء تاب‌آوری سیستم‌های اجتماعی- اکولوژیک در مواجهه با بحران‌های زییست‌محیطی از جمله کم آبی نیز می‌تواند مؤثر باشد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


[1] Arabiun, A. (2006). Indigenous Knowledge: A necessity in development process and promotion, Journal of Rural Development, 1(9), 81-186.

[2] Azkia, M. and Ghaffari, Gh. (2010). Analysis of rural studies in Iran, Rural Development, 1 (1), 290pp.

[3] Bashari, M., Kavoosi, M. and Delfardi S. (2012). Traditional methods of rainwater harvesting in the Sistan and Baluchestan, First National Conference on rainwater catchment systems, 22 December Khorasan Razavi, Iran. www.rwcs2012.ir.

[4] Berkes, F. (2012). Sacred Ecology, 3rd edition, Routledge publication: New York, USA, pp. 3–19.

[5] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C. (2000). Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management, Ecological applications, 10(5), 1251-1262.

[6] Berkes, F. and N.J. Turner. (2006). Knowledge, learning and the evolution of conservation practice for social–ecological system resilience, Human Ecology, 34 (4), 479–94.

[7] Birkenholtz, T. (2014). Knowing climate change: local social institutions and adaptation in Indian groundwater irrigation, The Professional Geographer, 66(3), 354-362.

[8] Bozarjmehri, Khadija. (2009). Strategies to optimize water use in agriculture with an emphasis on some indigenous technologies in Iran and other countries, In the second national conference on the effects of drought and its management , Esfahan, Iran.

[9] Gautam, D.R. and Gautam, M. R. (2012). Local and Scientific Knowledge for Water Management Under Climatic Variability and Change: A Case Study from Banganga and West Rapti Rivers in Western Nepal, traditional knowledge in water resources management, 21 February, Spring, Yazd, Iran, Qanat International Center for Water aqueduct and water historic structures , http://www.civilica.com/Paper-TKWRM01-TKWRM01_229.html

[10] Dahmen, A. (2012). Traditional hydraulic systems in Algeria, International Conference on traditional knowledge in water resources management, 21 February, spring, Yazd, Iran, Qanat International Center for Water aqueduct and water historic structures.

[11] Duyne, J. E. (2004). Local initiatives: collective water management in rural Bangladesh, (No. 11). New Delhi: DK Printworld, ISBN 8124602662, 290pp.

[12] Farhadi. D. (2009). Anthropology helping each. The third publication, Allameh Tabatabaei University, 329pp.

[13] Foltz, R.C. (2002). Iran’s water crisis: cultural, political, and ethical dimensions, Journal Agricalture Environ Ethics, 15 (4), 357-380.

[14] Ford, L., Rowse, T. (2012). Between Indigenous and Settler Governance. Taylor and Francis,Hoboken, ISBN 978-0-415-69970-9,221pp.

[15] Ghorbani, M., Mehrabi, A. A., Azarnivand, H., Bastani, S., Jafari, M. and Seeland, K. (2015). Communal institutions for the management of rangeland resources and dairy production in Taleghan Valley, Northern Iran. The Rangeland Journal, 37(2), 169-179.

 [16] Gleick, P. and Cooley, H. (2009). The World’s Water, 2008–2009 the Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Island Press, Washington, DC.

[17] Grothmann, T. and Patt, A. (2005). Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change. Global Environmental Change, 15(3), 199-213.

[18] Hayati, D., Yazdanpanah, M. and Karbalaee, F. (2010). Coping with Drought the Case of Poor Farmers of South Iran. Psychology & Developing Societies, 22(2), 361-383.

[19] Hoekstra, A.Y. (2000). Appreciation of water: four perspectives. Water Policy 1 (6), 605-622.

[20] HosseiniGzyr, A., EHSANI, A., Panahihan, A. and Glyvry, A. (2011). The use traditional structures Al and Algeh in the division Land water rights and to prevent gully erosion (Case Study Gzyr- Lengeh port), International Conference on traditional knowledge in water resources management, 21 February, Spring, Yazd, Iran, Qanat International Center for Water aqueduct and water historic structures, http://www.civilica.com/Paper-TKWRM01 -TKWRM01_105.html

[21] Husseingzyr, A.W., Melikian, A., Zehtabian, G. and Panahihan, A.R. (2011). artificial recharge aquifer by using traditional structures (Case Study Gzyr- Lengeh port),  International Conference on traditional knowledge in water resources management, 21 february,Spring,Yazd,Iran, Qanat International Center for Water aqueduct and water historic structures, http://www.civilica.com/Paper-TKWRM01-TKWRM01_106.html.

[22] Kamali, K., Ghafuri Roozbehani, A. and mofidinejad, M. (2011). Abbandan, an example of traditional rainwater catchment systems in northern Iran, International Conference on traditional knowledge in water resources management, 21 february,Spring,Yazd,Iran, Qanat International Center for Water aqueduct and water historic structures, http://www.civilica.com/Paper-TKWRM01-TKWRM01_101.html.

 [23] Kiyoshi, K., ‎Ibnu, Syabri and ‎Ismu Rini DWI Ari. (2014).Community Based Water Management and Social Capital IWA publishing. 276 pp.

[24] Kuylenstierna, J. L., Bjorklund, G. and Najlis, P. (1997). Sustainable water future with global implications: Everyone’s responsibility, Natural Resources Forum, 21(3), 181–190.

[25] Liu, J. (2007). Traditional knowledge in the eyes of development anthropology and its implication to development practices. Journal of China's Agriculture University (Social Sciences) 2, 133–141.

[26] Mendelsohn R, Dinar A. (2003). Climate, water, and agriculture, Land Econ, 79(3), 328–341.

[27] Mendelsohn R, Williams L. (2004). Comparing forecasts of the global impacts of climate change, Mitigat Adaptat Strateg Global Change, 9(4), 315–333.

[28] Ortega-Reig, M., Palau-Salvador, G., Sempere, M. J. C., Benitez-Buelga, J., Badiella, D. and Trawick, P. (2014). The integrated use of surface ground and recycled wastewater in adapting to drought in the traditional irrigation system of Valencia. Agricultural Water Management, 133, 55-64.

[29] Ovis, T., Prinz, D. and Ahmad, H. (2007). Water harvesting, use of indigenous knowledge for water supply in arid regions, Translation: Tbatbayyyzdy, J., and chakoshi, B., Mashhad University Jehad Press, 74 p.

[30] Parrotta, J.A., Liu, J. and Sin, H. C. (2007). Sustainable forestmanagement and poverty alleviation: roles of traditional forest-related knowledge. IUFRO, Vienna, Austria, ISBN 1016-3263,

[31] Pei, S. and Huai, H. (2007). Ethnobotan. Shanghai Technology Press, Shanghai, China, 12p. (In Chinese).

[32] Phare, M.-A.S. (2009). Denying the Source: The Crisis of First Nations Water Rights. Rocky Mountain Books.

[33] Rahimian, M., Divandari, D. and ZAKERI, E. (2011).Investigate distribution of water in the traditional way (Case study: Semnan), International Conference on traditional knowledge in water resources management, 21 february,Spring,Yazd,Iran, Qanat International Center for Water aqueduct and water historic structures, http://www.civilica.com/Paper-TKWRM01-TKWRM01_118.html.

[34] Rahjou., M, Rezapour, F. and Gavashiri, M. (2011). The investigation anthropological of traditional system Qanat water sharing and traditional irrigation in the city of Zarand, International Conference on traditional knowledge in water resources management, 21 February, spring, Yazd, Iran, Qanat International Center for Water aqueduct and water historic structures, http://www.civilica.com/Paper-TKWRM01-TKWRM01_088.html.

[35] Reedy, D., Savo, V. and McClatchey, W. (2014). Traditional Climatic Knowledge: Orchardists' perceptions of and adaptation to climate change in the Campania region (Southern Italy), Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, 148(4), 699-712.

[36] Shateri, M., mekaniki, R. and Arezoomandan, J. (2011). Cultural and social functions dedicated to traditional water management system in the subterranean city of Ferdows, International Conference on traditional knowledge in water resources management, 21 February, spring, Yazd, Iran, Qanat International Center for Water aqueduct and water historic structures, http://www.civilica.com/Paper-TKWRM01-TKWRM01_156.html.

 [37] Shava, S., M.E. Krasny, K. Tidball. And Zazu, C. (2010). Agricultural knowledge in urban and resettled communities: Applications to social–ecological resilience and environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 16(5–6), 575–89.

[38] Smit, B., Burton, I., Klein, R.J.T. and Wandel, J. (2000). An anatomy of adaptation to climate change and variability. Climat Change 45(1), 223–251.

[39] Talib, M., Ansoff, V. (2002). Social cohesion and local self-reliance in an Iranian village. An anthropology. 2(1), 87-.47.

[40] Von der Porten, S. (2012). Canadian indigenous governance literature: a review, Altern. Int. J. Indig, 8(1), 1-14.

[41] Von der Porten, S. and de Loë, R. (2013). Water governance and Indigenous governance: Towards a synthesis, Indigenous Policy Journal, 23(4).

[42] Vorosmarty, C. J., McIntyre, P. B., Gessner, M. O., Dudgeon, D., Prusevich, A., Green, P. and Davies, P. M. (2010). Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity, Nature, 467(7315), 555-561.

[43] Yazdanpanah, M., Monfared, N. and Hochrainer-Stigler, S. (2013). Inter-related effects due to droughts for rural populations: a qualitative field study for farmers in Iran, International Journal OT Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 31 (2), 106-129.

[44] Yuan, Z., Lun, F., He, L., Cao, Z., Min, Q., Bai, Y. and Fuller, A. M. (2014). Exploring the State of Retention of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in a Hani Rice Terrace Village, Southwest China, Sustainability, 6(7), 4497-4513.