مقایسه تغییرات مکانی فرسایش خاک در آبخیز‌های شاهد و نمونه گنبد در استان همدان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران

2 دانش‌آموختگان کارشناسی ارشد آبخیزداری، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، ایران

چکیده

بررسی تغییرات زمانی و مکانی فرسایش خاک و عوامل مؤثر بر آن برای ارائۀ راه‌کارهای مناسب برای برنامه‌‌ریزی درست استفاده از منابع آبخیز اهمیت به‌سزایی دارد. حال آن‌که مطالعات کمّی به ‌بررسی تغییرات زمانی فرسایش خاک و تغییرات مکانی آن پرداخته‌اند. در این پژوهش تغییرپذیری زمانی مشارکت مکانی فرسایش خاک در حوزه‌های آبخیز شاهد و نمونه گنبد، استان همدان با مساحت 300 هکتار، بررسی شده است. برای این منظور نقشه‌های کاربری اراضی، بافت خاک و تندی شیب، تلفیق و واحد‌های‌کاری حوزۀ آبخیز مورد مطالعه به‌دست آمد. سپس در هر واحد‌کاری اقدام به اندازه‌گیری رسوب با استفاده از شبیه‌ساز باران با شدت 50 میلی‌متر بر ساعت با تداوم 30 دقیقه طی فصل بارش منطقه در دو ماه آبان و آذر 1393 شد. سپس سه نقطه با خصوصیات نسبی مشابه و معرف هر واحد‌کاری واقع در رئوس مثلث متساوی‌الاضلاع مشخص شد. در طول مدت اعمال بارش، مقادیر رسوب در هر پنج دقیقه یک بار پس از شروع تا خاتمة آن اندازه‌گیری شد. تجزیه و تحلیل‌های آماری با استفاده از تحلیل آنالیز واریانس نشان داد که اختلاف بین واحد‌های کاری مختلف در آبخیزهای نمونه و شاهد از نظر مقدار فرسایش خاک در سطح اطمینان یک درصد معنی‌دار و مؤید تغییرات مکانی فرسایش خاک و متعاقباً تولید رسوب در بخش‌های مختلف حوزة آبخیز بود. حال آن‌که، اختلاف فرسایش خاک در واحدهای کاری مورد مطالعه برای ماه‌های آبان و آذر با استفاده از آزمون t معنی‌دار ارزیابی نشد.

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