ارزیابی تخریب اراضی با استفاده از شاخص کارایی مصرف آب و خشکسالی (مطالعۀ موردی: استان فارس)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بیابان‌زدایی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی منابع طبیعی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه هرمزگان، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه هرمزگان، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه علوم زمین، دانشگاه تولسا، اوکلاهاما.

چکیده

در این مطالعه برای بررسی تخریب اراضی در استان فارس از تأثیر شاخص خشکسالی SPI بر شاخص کارایی مصرف آب (WUE) استفاده گردید. برای محاسبۀ WUE از محصولات تولید ناخالص اولیه (GPP) و تبخیر و تعرق (ET) حاصل از سنجندۀ مودیس استفاده شد و از داده‌های بارندگی ایستگاه‌های هواشناسی، شاخص خشکسالی SPI محاسبه گردید. سپس روند تغییرات شاخص GPP، ET، WUE و SPI در بازۀ زمانی 2017-2001 با استفاده از رگرسیون خطی محاسبه و به‌دنبال آن، از عکس‌العمل شاخص WUE به خشکسالی، تخریب اراضی و بیابان‌زایی در کاربری‌های مختلف، با استفاده از آنالیز همبستگی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که شاخص‌های ET، GPP، WUE و خشکسالی در این بازۀ زمانی 17 ساله به ترتیب 25/75 ،9/29، 51/78 و 23/67 درصد افزایش یافته‌اند. بررسی تأثیر خشکسالی بر WUE در کاربری‌های اراضی کشاورزی و گراسلند نشان داد که رابطۀ مثبت بین این دو شاخص به ترتیب در 9/75 و 87 درصد از این کاربری‌ها دیده می‌شود که از این مقادیر به‌ترتیب 7/4 و 6/7 درصد رابطۀ معنی‌داری را نشان می‌‌دهد، این درحالی است که در مابقی مساحت این کاربری‌ها این اثرگذاری منفی می‌باشد. اثرپذیری WUE از خشکسالی در بوته‌زار‌ نشان دهندۀ رابطۀ مثبت در 9/40 درصد از مساحت این کاربری است که تنها 9/0 درصد آن، رابطۀ معنی‌دار است. رابطۀ منفی این کاربری در حدود 1/59 درصد از مساحت آن دیده شد، که از این مقدار تنها 6/1 درصد معنی‌دار می‌باشد. بررسی این رابطه در کاربری ساوانا نشان داد که 75 درصد از این کاربری رابطۀ منفی با خشکسالی داشته و مساحت باقی مانده رابطۀ مثبت با خشکسالی نشان داده است. شرایط اقلیمی خاص اکوسیستم‌های‌خشک و نیمه‌خشک باعث واکنش سریع تولید گیاهان به خشکسالی می‌شوند. بنابراین با بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل واکنش تولید گیاهان به خشکسالی در این اکوسیستم‌ها، می‌توان تخریب اراضی و بیابان‌زایی را به خوبی مورد بررسی قرار داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the land degradation using water use efficiency (WUE) and drought indices (case study: Fars province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Eskandari Damaneh 1
  • Hamid Gholami 2
  • Rasool Mahdavi 2
  • Asad Khoorani 3
  • Junran Li 4
1 Department of Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Hormozgan, Iran
2 Department of Natural Resources Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar-Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of geography, University of Hormozgan, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Geosciences, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa-Oklahoma
چکیده [English]

In this study, water use efficiency index (WUE) was used to assessing the effect of drought on the carbon and water cycle. To calculate this index, we used the gross primary product (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) products obtained from the MODIS sensor, and the trend of their changes and reaction of this index to drought were calculated for the period 2017-2001 in Fars province. Finally, we assessed the land degradation and desertification in different land uses for study area. The results showed that the indices of evapotranspiration, GPP, water use efficiency, and drought increased by 75.25%, 29.9%, 78.51%, and 67.23%, respectively. The effects of drought on evapotranspiration in agricultural lands and grasslands showed more than 67% positive relationship and also, in these land uses, we observed a significant positive relationship (33.4% and 12.5% for the agricultural lands and grassland, respectively). However, in shrubs lands, and savannas, it is more than 66.6% and 87.5%. The effect of drought on water use efficiency in grassland showed that more than 87% of these areas have a positive relationship. The effectiveness of water use efficiency in plants shows a positive relationship in 40.9% in this area, of which only 0.9% has a significant positive relationship. The negative relationship of this land use is about 59.1% of it. Of this negative amount, only 1.6% of the area had a significant negative relationship. The study of this relationship in the use of savannas shows 75% of this area, which includes 1.5 square kilometers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Land degradation
  • Fars province
  • MODIS sensor
  • Gross primary production
  • Evapotranspiration
[1] Abolverdi, J., Ferdosifar, G., Khalili, D. and Kamgar-Haghighi, A.A. (2016). Spatial and temporal changes of precipitation concentration in Fars province, southwestern Iran. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 128(2), 181-196.
[2] Ahani, H., Kherad, M., Kousari, M.R., Rezaeian-Zadeh, M., Karampour, M.A., Ejraee, F. and Kamali, S. (2012). An investigation of trends in precipitation volume for the last three decades in different regions of Fars province, Iran. Theoretical and applied climatology, 109(3-4), 361-3.
[3] Ahlström, A., Raupach, M.R., Schurgers, G., Smith, B., Arneth, A., Jung, M., Reichstein, M., Canadell, J.G., Friedlingstein, P. and Jain, A.K. (2015). The dominant role of semi-arid ecosystems in the trend and variability of the land CO2 sink. Science, 895-899(6237), 348
[4] Ahmadi, S., Azarnivand, H., Khosravi, H., Dehghana, P. and Behrang Manesh, M. (2019). Assessment the effect of drought and land use change on vegetation using Landsat data. Desert, 24(1), 23-31.
[5] Behrangmanesh, M., Khosravi, H., Alamdarloo, E. H., Alekasir, M. S., Gholami, A. and Singh, V. P. (2019). Linkage of agricultural drought with meteorological drought in different climates of Iran. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 138(1-2), 1025-1033.
[6] Cao, R., Hu, Z., Jiang, Z., Yang, Y., Zhao, W., Wu, G., Feng, X., Chen, R. and Hao, G. (2020). Shifts in ecosystem water use efficiency on china's loess plateau caused by the interaction of climatic and biotic factors over 1985–2015. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 291, 108100.
[7] Chasek, P., Akhtar-Schuster, M., Orr, B.J., Luise, A., Ratsimba, H.R. and Safriel, U. (2019). Land degradation neutrality: The science-policy interface from the UNCCD to national implementation. Environmental Science & Policy, 92, 182-190.
[8] Chen, Y., Li, J., Ju, W., Ruan, H., Qin, Z., Huang, Y., Jeelani, N., Padarian, J. and Propastin, P. (2017). Quantitative assessments of water-use efficiency in Temperate Eurasian Steppe along an aridity gradient. PloS one,7,15-25.
[9] Cristiano, P., Villa, M.D., De Diego, M., Lacoretz, M., Madanes, N. and Goldstein, G. (2020). Carbon assimilation, water consumption and water use efficiency under different land use types in subtropical ecosystems: from native forests to pine plantations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 291, 108094.
[10] Eskandari Damaneh, H., Eskandari Damaneh, H., Khosravi, H. and Gholami, H. (2019a). Analysis and monitoring of drought using NDVI index (Case study: the west basin of Jaz Murian wetland). Rangeland, 13(3), 461-475.
[11] Eskandari Damaneh, H., Gholami, H., Mahdavi, R., Khoorani, A. and Li, J. (2019b). Evaluation of land degradation trend using satellite imagery and climatic data (Case study: Fars province). Desert Ecosystem Engineering Journal, 24(8), 49-64 .
[12] Eskandari Damaneh, H., Zehtabian, G.R., Khosravi, H., Azarnivan, H. and Barati, A. (2020). Investigation of vegetation changes trend affected by drought in arid and semi-arid regions using remote sensing technique (Case study: Hormozgan province). Desert Ecosystem Engineering Journal, 9(28), 25-34.
[13] Eskandari, H., Borji, M., Khosravi, H. and Mesbahzadeh, T. (2016). Desertification of forest, range and desert in Tehran province, affected by climate change. Solid Earth, 7(3), 905-915.
[14] Feng, Q., Ma, H., Jiang, X., Wang, X. and Cao, S. (2015). What has caused desertification in China? Scientific reports, 5, 15998.
[15] Frank, D., Reichstein, M., Bahn, M., Thonicke, K., Frank, D., Mahecha, M.D., Smith, P., Van der Velde, M., Vicca, S. and Babst, F. (2015). Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts. Global change biology, 21(8), 2861-2880.
[16] Gang, C., Wang, Z., Zhou, W., Chen, Y., Li, J., Chen, J., Qi, J., Odeh, I. and Groisman, P. (2016). Assessing the spatiotemporal dynamic of global grassland water use efficiency in response to climate change from 2000 to 2013. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 202(5), 343-354.
[17] Guo, B., Zang, W., Yang, F., Han, B., Chen, S., Liu, Y., Yang, X., He, T., Chen, X., Liu, C. and Gong, R. (2020). Spatial and temporal change patterns of net primary productivity and its response to climate change in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China from 2000 to 2015. Journal of Arid Land, 12(1), 1-17.
[18] Heinsch, F.A., Reeves, M., Votava, P., Kang, S., Milesi, C., Zhao, M., Glassy, J., Jolly, W., Loehman, R. and Bowker, C. (2003). User’s guide GPP and NPP (MOD17A2/A3) products NASA MODIS land algorithm. Version, 2, 666-684.
[19] Huang, L., He, B., Han, L., Liu, J., Wang, H. and Chen, Z. (2017). A global examination of the response of ecosystem water-use efficiency to drought based on MODIS data. Science of the Total Environment, 601, 1097-1107.
[20] Karami, E. and Hayati, D. (2005). Rural poverty and sustainability: The case of groundwater depletion in Iran. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 2(2), 51-61.
[21] Keshavarz, M. and Karami, E. (2014). Farmers' decision-making process under drought. Journal of arid environments, 108, 43-56.
[22] Khosravi, H., Azareh, A., Eskandari Dameneh, H., Erafiei Sardoii, E. And Eskandari Damaneh, H. (2017). Assessing the effects of the climate change on land cover changes in different time periods. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 10, 93 (45).
[23] Li, D., Tian, P., Luo, H., Hu, T., Dong, B., Cui, Y., Khan, S. and Luo, Y. (2020). Impacts of land use and land cover changes on regional climate in the Lhasa River basin, Tibetan Plateau. Sci Total Environ, 742, 140570.
[24] Liu, D., Yu, C. and Zhao, F. (2018). Response of the water use efficiency of natural vegetation to drought in Northeast China. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 28(5), 611-628.
[25] Liu, H., Yan, R. and Yang, J. (2020). Credibility and statistical characteristics of CAMSRA and MERRA-2 AOD reanalysis products over the Sichuan Basin during 2003–2018. Atmospheric Environment, 117980.
[26] Liu, Y., Xiao, J., Ju, W., Zhou, Y., Wang, S. and Wu, X. (2015). Water use efficiency of China’s terrestrial ecosystems and responses to drought. Scientific reports, 5(1), 1-12.
[27] McKee, T.B., Doesken, N.J. and Kleist, J. (1993). The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales, Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Applied Climatology. Boston,179-183.
[28] Minelli, S., Erlewein, A. and Castillo, V. (2017). Land degradation neutrality and the UNCCD: from political vision to measurable targets, International Yearbook of Soil Law and Policy. Springer, 85-104.
[29] Mu, Q., Heinsch, F.A., Zhao, M. and Running, S.W. (2007). Development of a global evapotranspiration algorithm based on MODIS and global meteorology data. Remote sensing of Environment, 1115.19-537(4).
[30] Mu, Q., Zhao, M. and Running, S.W. (2011). Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm. Remote Sensing of Environment, 115(8), 1781-1800.
[31] Mu, Q., Zhao, M. and Running, S.W. (2013). MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) product (NASA MOD16A2/A3). Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Collection, 5.
[32] Nicholson, S.E., Tucker, C.J. and Ba, M. (1998). Desertification, drought, and surface vegetation: An example from the West African Sahel. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(5), 815-830.
[33] Nielsen, U.N. and Ball, B.A. (2015). Impacts of altered precipitation regimes on soil communities and biogeochemistry in arid and semi‐arid ecosystems. Global change biology, 21(4), 1407-1421.
[34] Pan, S., Yang, J., Tian, H., Shi, H., Chang, J., Ciais, P., Francois, L., Frieler, K., Fu, B. and Hickler, T. (2020). Climate Extreme Versus Carbon Extreme: Responses of Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes to Temperature and Precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 125(4), e2019JG005252.
[35] Ponce-Campos, G.E., Moran, M.S., Huete, A., Zhang, Y., Bresloff, C., Huxman, T.E., Eamus, D., Bosch, D.D., Buda, A.R. and Gunter, S.A. (2013). Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions. Nature, 494, 349-352.
[36] Ravi, S., Breshears, D., Huxman, T. and D’Odorico, P. (2010). Interactions between geomorphic processes and vegetation at desert margins: Implications for desertification. Geomorphology, 116, 236-245.
[37] Raza, A., Razzaq, A., Mehmood, S.S., Zou, X., Zhang, X., Lv, Y. and Xu, J. (2019). Impact of climate change on crops adaptation and strategies to tackle its outcome: A review. Plants, 8(2), 34.
[38] Running, S.W., Nemani, R.R., Heinsch, F.A., Zhao, M., Reeves, M. and Hashimoto, H. (2004). A continuous satellite-derived measure of global terrestrial primary production. Bioscience, 54(6), 547-560.
[39] Salimi, S., Balyani, S., Hosseini, S.A. and Momenpour, S.E. (2018). The prediction of spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation regime in Iran: the case of Fars province. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 4(2), 565-577.
[40] Savari, M., Eskandari Damaneh, H. and Eskandari Damaneh, H. (2020). Factors influencing local people’s participation in sustainable forest management. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13(13), 513.
[41] Sulla-Menashe, D., Gray, J.M., Abercrombie, S.P. and Friedl, M.A. (2019). Hierarchical mapping of annual global land cover 2001 to present: The MODIS Collection 6 Land Cover product. Remote Sensing of Environment, 222, 183-194.
[42] Sun, S., Song, Z., Wu, X., Wang, T., Wu, Y., Du, W. and Lin, X. (2018). Spatio-temporal variations in water use efficiency and its drivers in China over the last three decades. Ecological Indicators, 94, 292-304.
[43] Sun, S., Song, Z., Wu, X., Wang, T., Wu, Y., Du, W., Che, T., Huang, C., Zhang, X. and Ping, B. (2018). Spatio-temporal variations in water use efficiency and its drivers in China over the last three decades. Ecological Indicators, 94, 292-304.
[44] Tan, Z.H., Zhang, Y.P., Deng, X.B., Song, Q.H., Liu, W.J., Deng, Y., Tang, J.W., Liao, Z.Y., Zhao, J.F. and Song, L. (2015). Interannual and seasonal variability of water use efficiency in a tropical rainforest: Results from a 9 year eddy flux time series. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(2), 464-479.
[45] Veron, S., Paruelo, J. and Oesterheld, M. (2006). Assessing desertification. Journal of Arid Environments, 66(4), 751-763.
[46] Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Gouveia, C., Camarero, J.J., Beguería, S., Trigo, R., López-Moreno, J.I., Azorín-Molina, C., Pasho, E., Lorenzo-Lacruz, J. and Revuelto, J. (2013). Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(1), 52-57.
[47] Wang, X., Wang, T., Liu, D., Guo, H., Huang, H. and Zhao, Y. (2017). Moisture‐induced greening of the South Asia over the past three decades. Global change biology, 23(11), 4995-5005.
[48] Wu, Y., Wu, Z. and Liu, X. (2020). Dynamic Changes of Net Primary Productivity and Associated Urban Growth Driving Forces in Guangzhou City, China. Environ Manage, 65(6), 758-773.
[49] Xu, H.-j., Wang, X.-p., Zhao, C.-y. and Zhang, X.-x. (2019a). Responses of ecosystem water use efficiency to meteorological drought under different biomes and drought magnitudes in northern China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 278, 107660.
[50] Xu, H., Fan, W., Hu, J., Mao, F. and Dong, H. (2019b). Long-term trend in vegetation gross primary production, phenology and their relationships inferred from the FLUXNET data. Journal of Environmental Management, 246, 605-616.
[51] Yang, H.J., Li, X.Y., Liu, L.J., Ma, J.L. and Wang, J. (2016a). [Estimation of net primary productivity in arid region based on coupling model.]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 27(6), 1750-1758.
[52] Yang, Y., Guan, H., Batelaan, O., McVicar, T.R., Long, D., Piao, S., Liang, W., Liu, B., Jin, Z. and Simmons, C.T. (2016b). Contrasting responses of water use efficiency to drought across global terrestrial ecosystems. Scientific reports, 6(1), 1-8.
[53] Yao, J., Liu, H., Huang, J., Gao, Z., Wang, G., Li, D., Yu, H. and Chen, X. (2020). Accelerated dryland expansion regulates future variability in dryland gross primary production. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-10.
[54] Zhang, X., Moran, M.S., Zhao, X., Liu, S., Zhou, T., Ponce-Campos, G.E. and Liu, F. (2014). Impact of prolonged drought on rainfall use efficiency using MODIS data across China in the early 21st century. Remote Sensing of Environment, 150, 188-197.
[55] Zhao, M., Heinsch, F.A., Nemani, R.R. and Running, S.W. (2005). Improvements of the MODIS terrestrial gross and net primary production global data set. Remote sensing of Environment, 95(2), 164-176.
[56] Zhou, Q., Luo, Y., Zhou, X., Cai, M. and Zhao, C. (2018). Response of vegetation to water balance conditions at different time scales across the karst area of southwestern China—A remote sensing approach. Science of The Total Environment, 645, 460-470.
[57] Zou, J., Ding, J., Welp, M., Huang, S. and Liu, B. (2020). Using MODIS data to analyse the ecosystem water use efficiency spatial-temporal variations across Central Asia from 2000 to 2014. Environmental Research, 182, 108985.