اثر تغییرات سطح و ماندگاری پوشش برف بر پوشش گیاهی در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری علوم و مهندسی مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 دانشیار گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

3 استاد گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

4 استادیار پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری

چکیده

برف از عوامل موثر بر میزان و عملکرد پوشش گیاهی در ارتفاعات می باشد. هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی اثر شاخص های سطح پوشش برف و ماندگاری پوشش برف بر دو گونه غالب و دارای زوال شامل گون گزی (Astragalus adscendens) و بلوط ایرانی (Quercus brantii) در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری از سال 1382 تا 1395 (2016-2003) می‌باشد. بدین منظور مقادیر شاخص نرمال شده تفاضل برف (Normalized Difference Snow Index ,NDSI) و شاخص نرمال شده تفاضل پوشش گیاهی (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) از تصاویر ماهواره ای MODIS استخراج و در محدوده های دارای زوال پوشش گیاهی جنگلی (مناطق بارز، سوه، هلن و منطقه شاهد جنگی) و پوشش مرتعی (منطقه زوال گون گزی و منطقه شاهد گون گزی) با استفاده از آنالیز پیرسون مقایسه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که متوسط کاهش سطح پوشش برف در استان طی دوره مورد بررسی تا حدود 32 درصد قابل مشاهده است، اگرچه روند ثابتی ملاحظه نگردید. شاخص های برف مطالعاتی حداکثر همبستگی را با پوشش های مرتعی و جنگلی در ماه مارس نشان دادند. مناطق دارای زوال گون گزی بیشترین همبستگی را با شاخص سطح برف (R>0.70) و شاخص ماندگاری پوشش برف (R>0.71) در ماه مذکور نشان داد. لذا، نتایج بیانگر آن است که تاثیر ماندگاری برف بر پوشش گیاهی بیشتر از سطح برف می باشد. مطابق یافته های تحقیق، بارش های برف انتهای فصل زمستان و ماندگاری آن بر میزان پوشش گون گزی در مقایسه با پوشش گیاهی جنگلی موثرتر و در صورت کاهش برف این گونه به زوال حساس تر می گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of snow cover area and duration changes on vegetation cover in Chaharmal and Bakhtiari Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Yaghamei 1
  • Reza Jafari 2
  • Saeed Soltani 3
  • Hasan Jahanbazi 4
1 Dep. of Natural Resources Isfahan University of Technology
2 Associate professor, Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology
3 Dep. of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology
4 Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Agricultural and Natural resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

Snow is one of the effective fators on vegetation rate and function in mountainous areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of snow cover area index and snow cover duration index on two declining and dominant plant species including Astragalus adscendens and Quercus brantii in Chaharmal and Bakhtiari Province from 2003 to 2016. For this purpose, Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were extracted from MODIS satellite images and compared using Pearson analysis in forest decline regions (Barz, Seveh, Helen and control area) and in rangeland decline regions including Astragalus adscendens decline and control areas. Results showed that about 32% of the snow cover in the study area has been reduced, although a constant trend was not observed. The studied snow indices showed the highest relationships with rangeland and forest vegetation cover in March. The decline region of Astragalus adscendens had the maximum relationship with the snow cover area (R>0.70) and snow cover duration (R>0.71) in March. According to the findings, snow precipitation in late winter season and its duration is more effective on the rangeland Astragalus adscendens species than forest vegetation cover and this pecies can be more sensitive to decline in case of snow reduction.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Snow cover area
  • snow cover duration
  • NDSI
  • NDVI
  • MODIS
[1] Alavipanah, K. (2016). Application of remote sensing in Erath sciences (soil sciences), Tehran University Press, Tehran, Iran (in Farsi).
[2] Attarod, P., Sadeghi, S.M., Taheri Sarteshnizi, F., Saroyi, S., Abbasian, P., Masihpoor, M., Kordrostami, F., and Dirikvandi, A. (2016). Meteorological parameters and evapotranspiration affecting the Zagros forests decline in Lorestan province. Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research,  13(2), 98-114 (in Farsi).
[3] Beier, C., Sink, S., Hennon, P., Damore, D., and Juday, G. (2008). Twentieth-century warming and the dendroclimatology of declining yellow-cedar forests in southeastern Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research,  38(6), 1319–1334.
[4] Bokhorst, S.F., Bjerke, J.W., Tømmervik, H., Callaghan, T.V., and Phoenix, G.K. (2009). Winter warming events damage sub-Arctic vegetation: consistent evidence from an experimental manipulation and a natural event. Journal of Ecology,  97(6), 1408-1415.
[5] Buus-Hinkler, J., Hansen, B.U., Tamstorf, M.P., and Pedersen, S.B. (2006). Snow-vegetation relations in a High Arctic ecosystem: Inter-annual variability inferred from new monitoring and modeling concepts. Remote Sensing of Environment,  105(3), 237-247.
[6] Callaghan, T.V.and Johansson, M. (2021). Chapter 5 - Snow, Ice, and the Biosphere, in Snow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks and Disasters, J.F. Shroder, Haeberli, W., & Whiteman, C., Editors.  Academic Press: Boston. p. 139-165.
[7] Dedieu, J. P., Carlson, B.Z., Bigot, S., Sirguey, P., Vionnet, V., and Choler, P. (2016).  On the importance of high-resolution time series of optical imagery for quantifying the effects of snow cover duration on Alpine plant habitat. Remote Sensing, 8 (6), 481.
[8] Dye, D.G.and Tucker, C.J. (2003). Seasonality and trends of snow-cover, vegetation index, and temperature in northern Eurasia. Geophysical Research Letters,  30(7), 1-10.
[9] Edmonds, T., Lunt, I.D., Roshier, D.A., and Louis, J. (2006). Annual variation in the distribution of summer snowdrifts in the Kosciuszko alpine area, Australia, and its effect on the composition and structure of alpine vegetation. Austral Ecology,  31(7), 837-848.
[10] Evans, B.M., Walker, D.A., Benson, C.S., Nordstrand, E.A., and Petersen, G.W. (1989). Spatial interrelationships between terrain, snow distribution and vegetation patterns at an arctic foothills site in Alaska. Ecography,  12(3), 270-278.
[11] Falahati, F., Alijani, B., and Saliqeh, M. (2017). Investigating the effect of climate change on snow cover with the approach of water resources management in the coming decades (Case study: Basin of watershed leading to Amir Kabir dam). Scientific Journal of Rescue and Relief,  9(3), 68-79.
[12] Golmohamadi, F., Hassanzad Navroodi, I., Bonyad, A.E., and J, M. (2017). Effects of some environmental factors on dieback severity of trees in Middle Zagros forests of Iran (Case study: Dalab Strait, Ilam Province. Plant Research,  30(3), 644-655.
[13] Grippa, M., Kergoat, L., Le Toan, T., Mognard, N.M., Delbart, N., L'Hermitte, J., and Vicente-Serrano, S.M. (2005) . The impact of snow depth and snowmelt on the vegetation variability over central Siberia. Geophysical Research Letters,  32, 1-4.
[14] Hall, D.K.and Riggs, G.A. (2010). Normalized-Difference Snow Index (NDSI), in Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers, V.P. Singh, Singh, P., & Haritashya, U.K., Editors.  Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht. p. 779-780.
[15] Hennon, P., Amore, D., Wittwer, D., Johnson, A., Schaberg, P., Hawley, G., Beier, C., Sink, S., and Juday, G. (2006). Climate warming, reduced snow, and freezing injury could explain the demise of yellow-Cedar in southeast Alaska, USA.
[16] Hosseini, A., Hosseini, S.M., and Linares, J.C. (2018). Site factors and stand conditions associated with Persian Oak decline in Zagros mountain forests. Forest Systems,  26(3), 1-15.
[17] Huang, K., Zu, J., Zhang, Y., Cong, N., Liu, Y., and Chen, N. (2019). Impacts of snow cover duration on vegetation spring phenology over the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Plant Ecology,  12(3), 583-592.
[18] Jahanbazi, H.and Shirmardi, H. (2014). Mapping rangeland and forest species in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Reasearch Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Report, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran (in Farsi).
[19] Jamali, M., De Beaulieu, J.L., Miller, N.F., Andrieu-Ponel, V., Ponel, P., Lak, R., Sadeddin, N., Akhani, H., and Fazeli, H. (2009). Vegetation history of the SE section of the Zagros Mountains during the last five millennia; a pollen record from the Maharlou Lake, Fars Province, Iran. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany,  18(2), 123-136.
[20] Javanshir, K. (1980). Classification of Oak in the World. Publications of the Department of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iran, 50 pp (in Farsi).
[21] Julien, Y.and Sobrino, J.A. (2021). Introducing the time series change visualization and interpretation (TSCVI) method for the interpretation of global NDVI changes. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation,  96, 102268.
[22] Kamali, M., Hajjam, S., and Vazife Doust, M. (2012). Study of snow coverage and its effect on the rainfed wheat yield of north Khorasan Province. Journal of Water and Soil,  25(6), 1494-1502 (in Farsi).
[23] Kerns, B.K., Powell, D.C., Mellmann-Brown, S., Carnwath, G., and Kim, J.B. (2018). Effects of projected climate change on vegetation in the Blue Mountains ecoregion, USA. Climate Services,  10, 33-43.
[24] Khajeddin, S.J. (1999). The habitat slope on Astragalus adscendens. Soil and water Sciences,  4(4), 129-143 (in Farsi).
[25] Kunkel, K.E., Robinson, D.A., Champion, S., Yin, X., Estilow, T., and Frankson, R.M. (2016). Trends and Extremes in Northern Hemisphere Snow Characteristics. Current Climate Change Reports,  2(2), 65-73.
[26] Lou, H., Wu, X., Ren, X., Yang, S., Cai, M., Wang, P., and Guan, Y. (2021). Quantitative Assessment of the Influences of Snow Drought on Forest and Grass Growth in Mid-High Latitude Regions by Using Remote Sensing. Remote Sensing,  13, 668.
[27] Lundell, R., Saarinen, T., and Hänninen, H. (2010). Effects of snowmelt on the springtime photosynthesis of the evergreen dwarf shrub Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Plant Ecology & Diversity,  3(2), 121-130.
[28] Marvi Mohajer, M.R. (2012). Forestry and Silviculture, Tehran University Press, Third Edition, Tehran, Iran (in Farsi).
[29] NASA (2016). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), NASA Earth Science Data, http://earthdata.nasa.gov/MOD13A1, Accessed January 2016.
[30] Niittynen, P., Heikkinen, R.K., and Luoto, M. (2020). Decreasing snow cover alters functional composition and diversity of Arctic tundra. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,  117(35), 21480-21487.
[31] NSIDCS. (2016). National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDCS), https://nsidc.org/data/MOD10A2, Accessed January 2016.
[32] Pakzadz, M., Raeini, S., and Khodagholi, M. (2013). Evaluation of the effects of climate factors on distribution of the habitats of Astragalus adscendens in Isfahan province. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research,  20(1), 199-212 (in Farsi).
[33] Paudel, K.and Andersen, P. (2013). Response of rangeland vegetation to snow cover dynamics in Nepal Trans Himalaya. Climatic Change,  117(1), 149-162.
[34] Peng, S., Piao, S., Ciais, P., Fang, J., and Wang, X. (2010). Change in winter snow depth and its impacts on vegetation in China. Global Change Biology,  16(11), 3004-3013.
[35] Pomeroy, J.W., Marks, D., Link, T., Ellis, C., Hardy, J., Rowlands, A., and Granger, R. (2009). The impact of coniferous forest temperature on incoming longwave radiation to melting snow. Hydrological Processes,  2, 2513-2525.
[36] Qin, D.H., Liu, S.Y., and Li, P. (2006). Snow cover distribution, variability, and response to climate change in western China. Journal of Climate,  19, 1820–1833.
[37] Rouse, J.W., Haas, R.W., Schell, J.A., Deering, D.W., and Harlan, J.C. (1974). Monitoring the vernal advancement and retrogradation (green ware effect) of natural vegetation. NASA/GSFCT, Type 3, Final Report, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
[38] Sagheb, K., Talebi, T., and Pourhashemi, M. (2014). Forests of Iran, a tTreasure from the Past, a Hope for the Future, Springer, Dordrecht.
[39] Seifollahi, A.R., Ebadi, R., Sadeghi, S.E., and Seyedoleslami, H. (2008 ). Complementary biological investigation and some morphological and behavioral characteristics of Cyamophila astragalicola (Hom.: Psyllidae)  in west of Isfahan province Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research,  5(2), 135-150 (in Farsi).
[40] Shen, M., Tang, Y., Chen, J., Zhu, X., and Zheng, Y. (2011). Influences of temperature and precipitation before the growing season on spring phenology in grasslands of the central and eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology,  151, 1711 –1722.
[41] Soltani, S., Yaghmaei, L., Khodagholi, M., and Saboohi, R. (2011). Bioclimatic classification of Chahar-Mahal &Bakhtiari province using multivariate statistical methods. JWSS-Isfahan University of Technology,  14(54), 53-68 (in Farsi).
[42] Trujillo, E., Molotch, N.P., Goulden, M.L., Kelly, A.E., and Bales, R.C. (2012). Elevation-dependent influence of snow accumulation on forest greening. Nature Geoscience,  5(10), 705-709.
[43] Wan, Y.F., Gao, Q.Z., Li, Y., Qin, X. B., Ganjurjav, Zhang, W.N., Ma, X., and Liu, S. (2014). Change of Snow Cover and Its Impact on Alpine Vegetation in the Source Regions of Large Rivers on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research,  46(3), 632-644.
[44] Westerling, A.L., Hidalgo, H.G., Cayan, D.R., and Swetnam, T.W. (2006). Warming and Earlier Spring Increase Western U.S. Forest Wildfire Activity. Science,  313, 940-943.
[45] Xiaoyue, W. (2018). Snow cover phenology affects alpine vegetation growth dynamics on the Tibetan Plateau: Satellite observed evidence, impacts of different biomes, and climate drivers. Agricultural and forest meteorology, 256, 61-74.
[46] Yaghmaei, L., Jafari, R., and Soltani, S. (2021). Investigating net primary production in climate regions of central Zagros, Iran, using MODIS and meteorological data. Climate Research,  83, 173-186.
[47] Yu, L., Liu, T., and Zhang, S. (2017). Temporal and Spatial Changes in Snow Cover and the Corresponding Radiative Forcing Analysis in Siberia from the 1970s to the 2010s. Advances in Meteorology,  2017, 9517427.