پاسخ جوانه‌زنی گراس‌ها و فورب‌های یکساله و چندساله به محصولات آتش در مراتع نیمه‌استپی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

3 دانشیار دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مرتع، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

چکیده

آتش یکی از عوامل مهم اکولوژیکی است که بر پویایی پوشش‌گیاهی مراتع تأثیر می‌گذارد. در چند دهه اخیر، وقوع آتش‌سوزی در مراتع نیمه‌استپی به طور قابل توجهی افزایش یافته و ظرفیت سازگاری گیاهان را برای بازسازی پس از آتش‌سوزی به چالش کشانده است. در پژوهش حاضر، پاسخ جوانه‌زنی هشت گونه علفی یکساله و چندساله مراتع نیمه‌استپی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری به تیمارهای محصولات آتش شامل حرارت (60، 80 و 100 درجه سانتی‌گراد)، دود، خاکستر و تأثیر ترکیبی تیمارهای حرارت و دود مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. همچنین، تغییرات درصد پوشش گونه‌های مورد مطالعه یک سال پس از آتش سوزی در عرصه اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که جوانه‌زنی بذور هشت گونه گیاهی مورد مطالعه، حداقل به یکی از تیمارهای محصولات آتش واکنش مثبت یا منفی معنی‌داری نشان داد. تیمار ترکیبی دود و 60 درجه سانتی‌گراد سبب افزایش معنی‌دار میانگین درصد جوانه‌زنی گونه Heteranthelium piliferum شد. همچنین این تیمار، میانگین مدت زمان جوانه‌زنی گونه Cousinia cylindracea را به صورت معنی‌داری کاهش داد. تیمار خاکستر نیز سبب افزایش میانگین درصد جوانه‌زنی گونه‌های Alyssum linifolium وStachys lavandulifolia شد. نتایج نمونه‌برداری پوشش گیاهی نیز نشان داد که از بین هشت گونه مورد بررسی، گونه‌های H. piliferum و Taeniatherum crinitum نسبت به آتش‌سوزی سازگار بوده و شش گونه نیز مقاوم بودند. از نتایج این مطالعه می توان به عنوان یک عامل بالقوه در جهت درک پویایی پوشش‌گیاهی و احیای مراتع تخریب‌شده استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Germination response of annual and perennial herbaceous species to fire products in semi-steppe rangelands

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Asghar Naghipour 1
  • Maedeh Sharifi 2
  • Ataollah Ebrahimi 3
  • Elham Ghesareh Ardestani 1
  • Sina Nabizadeh 4
1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, I.R. Iran.
2 MSc. in Range management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
3 Associate Prof., Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, I.R. Iran.
4 PhD student in Rangeland Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

Fire is one of the important ecological factors that affect the dynamics of rangeland vegetation. In recent decades, the incidence of wildfires in semi-steppe rangelands has increased significantly, challenging the adaptive capacity of plants for post-fire regeneration. In the present study, the germination response of eight annual and perennial herbaceous species of semi-steppe rangelands of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province to fire products treatments including heat (60, 80 and 100° C), smoke, ash, and the combined effect of heat and smoke treatments were investigated. Also, percentage cover change of studied species, one year after the fire were measured in the field. The results showed that the germination of seeds of eight studied plant species showed a significant positive or negative reaction to at least one of the fire product treatments. Combined treatment of smoke and 60° C caused a significant increase in the mean germination percentage of Heteranthelium piliferum. This treatment also significantly reduced the mean germination time of Cousinia cylindracea. Ash treatment also increased the mean germination percentage of Alyssum linifolium and Stachys lavandulifolia. Vegetation sampling results also showed that among the eight species studied, H. piliferum and Taeniatherum crinitum were fire adapted and six species were tolerant. The results of this study can be used as a potential factor to understand the dynamics of vegetation and restoration of degraded rangelands.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vegetation
  • Smoke treatment
  • Heat treatment
  • Ash treatment
  • Germination percentage
  • Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province
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