Abel, S., Peters, A., Trinks, S., Schonsky, H., Facklam, M. and Wessolek, G. (2013). Impact of biochar and hydro char addition on water retention and water repellency of sandy soil. Geoderma, 202: 183-191.
 Ahmad, M., Rajapaksha, A. U., Lim, J. E., Zhang, M., Bolan, N., Mohan, D., Vithanage, M., Lee, S. S. and Ok, Y. S. (2014). Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water (a review). Chemosphere, 99: 19-33.
 Barahimi, N., Afyuni, M., Karami, M. and Rezaee Nejad, Y. (2009). Cumulative and residual effects of organic amendments on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in soil and wheat. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 12(46): 803-812. (In Persian).
 Bass, A. M., Bird, M. I., Kay, G. and Muirhead, B. (2016). Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems. Science of the Total Environment, 550: 459-470.
 Beesley, L. and Marmiroli, M. (2011). The immobilization and retention of soluble arsenic, cadmium and zinc by biochar. Environmental Pollution , 159: 474-480.
 Chen, Y., Shinogi, Y. and Taira., M. (2010). Influence of biochar use on sugarcane growth, soil parameters, and groundwater quality. Soil Research, 48: 526-530.
 Chintala, R., Molinedo, J., Schumacher, T. E., Papiemik, S. K., Malo, D. D., Clay, D. E., Kumar, S. and Gulbrandson, D. W. (2013). Nitrate Sorption Desorption in Biochar from Fast Pyrolysis. Journal of Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 179(78): 250-257.
 Devereux, R. C., Sturrock, C. J. and Mooney, S. J. (2013). The Effects of Biochar on Soil Physical Properties and Winter Wheat Growth. Journal of Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 103(1): 13-18.
 Dispenza, V., Pasquale, C. D., Fascella, G., Mammano, M. M. and Alonzo, G. (2016). Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × Nigella L. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 12: 36-38.
 Domene, X., Mattana, S., Hanley, K., Enders, A., Lehmann., J. 2014. Medium-term effects of corn biochar addition on soil biota activities and functions in a temperate soil cropped to corn. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 72: 152-162.
 Feng, L., Zhang, L. and Fen, L. (2014). Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil amended with sewage sludge compost. International Bio deterioration and Biodegradation, 95: 200-207.
 Gaskin, J. W., Steiner C., Harris K., Das K. C. and Bibens B. (2008). Effect of Low-temperature Pyrolysis Conditions on Biochar for Agricultural Use, Journal of Transactions of the ASABE, 51 (6): 2061–2069.
 Glaser, B., Parr, M., Braun, C. and Kopolo, G. (2009). Biochar is carbon negative. Nature Geoscience, 2: 2-10.
 Gul, S., Whalen, J. K., Thomas, B. W., Sachdeva, V. and Deng, H. (2015). Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Responses in Biochar-amended Soils: Mechanisms and Future Directions. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 206: 46-59.
 Holecheck, J. L., Pipper, R. D. and Herbel, C.H. (2004). Range Management (Principles and Practices), Englewood New Jersy, USA, 9 p.
 Jeffery, S., Bezemer, T. M., Cornelissen, G., Kuyper, T. W., Lehmann, J., Mommer, L., Sohi, S. P., Vande Voorde, T. F. J., Wardle, D. A. and Van Groenigen, J. W. (2015). The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins. Global Change Biology and Bioenergy, 7: 1-13.
 Jemal, K. and Abebe, A. (2016). Determination of bio-char rate for improved production of Lemmon grass. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 4(2): 149-157.
 Jones, D. L., Rousk, J., Edwards-Jones, G., DeLuca, T. H. and Murphy, D. V. (2012). Biochar-mediated changes in soil quality and plant growth in a three-year field trial. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 45:113-124.
 Kameyama, K., Miyamoto, T., Shiono, T. and Shinogi, Y. (2012). Influence of Sugarcane Bagasse-derived biochar application on nitrate leaching in calcaric dark red soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, 41(4): 1131-1137.
 Kent, G. A., Douglass, F. and Kasten Dumerose, R. (2009). Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bare root Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 104(315): 229-240.
 Kumar, S., Masto, R., Sarkar, P., George, J. and Selvi, V. A. (2013). Biochar preparation from parthenium hysterophorus and its potential use in soil application. Journal of Ecological Engineering, 55 (3): 67-72.
 Lei, o. and Zhang, R. (2013). Effects of biochar derived from different feed stocks and pyrolysis temperatures on soil physical and hydraulic properties. Journal of Soils Sediments, 13(9): 1561-1572.
 Ogawa, M., Okimori, Y. and Takahashi, F. (2006). Carbon sequestration by carbonization of biomass and forestation: three case studies. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change, 11: 421-436.
 Oh, T. K., Shingoi Y., Chikushi J., Lee Y. H. and Bong, S. C. (2012). Effect of Aqueous Extract of Biochar on Germination and Seedling Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 57 (1), 55–60.
 Oldfield, E. E, Wood, S. A, Palm, C. A. and Bradford, M. A. (2015). How much soil organic matter is needed for sustainable agriculture? Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 13: 527–527.
 Oldfield, E. E, Wood, S. A, Palm, C. A and Bradford, M. A. (2017). Direct effects of soil organic matter on productivity mirror those observed with organic amendments. Plant and soil, 423: 363-373.
 Rezaipoorbaghedar, A., Hakimi, M. H., Sadeghinia, M., Azimzadeh, H. R. 2011. Effect of some soil properties on distribution of Eurotia ceratoides. Journal of Rangeland Science, 2(1): 417-424.
 Robertson, G. P., Gross, K. L. and Hamilton, S. K. (2014). Farming for ecosystem services: an ecological approach to production agriculture. Bioscience, 64: 404–415.
 Tan, X. F., Liu, Y. G., Zeng, G., Wang, X., Hu, X., Gu, Y. and Yang, Z. (2015). Application of biochar for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere, 125: 70-85.
 Tefera, B. and Sterk, G. (2010). Land management, erosion problems and soil and water conservation in Fincha watershed, Western Ethiopia. Journal by Land Use Policy, 27: 1027-1037.
 Van Zwieten, L., Kimber, S., Morris, S., Chan, K. Y., Downie, A., Rust, J. and Cowie A. (2010). Effects of Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Peppermill Waste on Agronomic Performance and Soil Fertility, Journal of Plant and Soil, 327 (2): 235-246.
 Wang, Y., Hu, Y., Zhao, X., Wang, S. and Xing, G. (2013). Comparisons of biochar properties from wood material and crop residues at different temperatures and residence time. Energy and Fuels.
 Yuan, J. H. and Xu, R. K. (2011). The amelioration effects of low temperature biochar generated from nine crop residues on an acidic ultisol. Soil Use and Management, 27: 110-115.
 Zhang, L. and Sun., X. (2014). Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar. Bio Resource Technology, 171: 274-284.
 Zohdi, M. 2020. Range management in Iran. Iran’s Natural Resources, 4(6): 19-23.